28th July In History

We have a unit of measurement for almost everything, both tangible and intangible. Likewise, if we think of measuring history, what is that one thing which will help us keep a count of how far we have come? It is none but the events which have occurred in the past that have given us a proper measure of how much we have grown ever since, as a civilization and what all we have gained or lost in the process. Today’s tech-savvy era for instance, has its roots in the past and only when we know about the bygones, we learn what inspired such inventions. The events which were instrumental in the making of history are like a well-knit story and when we get into the details, we know how engrossing it is. The occurrences of 28th July hold a treasure of such stories which tell us of upheavals as well as the settling of major socio-political eruptions. On the one hand, it talks about beginning of new regime, while on the other it tells us the end of the age-old crusades. Therefore, without any further delay, let’s take a plunge into the happenings of 28th July and enrich our grey matter.




Thomas Cromwell Was Killed

Thomas Cromwell was a member in the court of King Henry VIII of England and was appointed as the chief minister. On 28th July, 1540, Cromwell, was killed at the orders of the king as he was indicted of treachery.



The New Sultan Of The Ottoman Empire

Mahmud II was one of the most renowned rulers of the Ottoman Empire and it was him who incorporated westernized methods of ruling in his empire. He ascended the throne on 28th July, 1808, and during his reign, the empire flourished and remained united.



Peru Gains Independence

Peru was a Spanish colony and in early 1800s there began a war for independence which included many conflicts, big and small. On 28th July, 1821, Argentine commander José de San Martín headed towards Lima and announced Peru to be independent.



U.S Constitutional Amendment

On this day in 1868, the 14th amendment of the Constitution of the United States was adopted. According to this amendment, the Africa–Americans will be given the citizenship as well as all the other rights which they should be entitled to as a citizen.



Removal Of The Bonus Army From Washington

The Bonus Army, as it is popularly known as, was a group formed with World War I veterans and their families. This group assembled at Washington D.C. in 1932 to ask for compensation for their participation in the war. However, on 28th July, Herbert Hoover, the US President, asked the US Army to remove this group from the place.



Soviet Spain Diplomacy

The diplomatic relation between the USSR and Spain had its roots in the 1520s, but with the death of Peter II of Russia and the accession of throne by Anna of Russia put a rift in the ties. There were many attempts to mend the relationship after this, and one such was made on 28th July, 1933, when the countries exchanged telegrams regarding the establishment of diplomatic relations.



End Of Coffee Rationing

Following the onset of World War II, the Roosevelt administration imposed restrictions on various commodities, coffee being one of them. On 28th July, 1943, the US Premier ended coffee rationing which until allowed a person one pound of coffee every five weeks.



The Approval Of The UN Charter

The ‘United Nations Charter’ was signed in June 1945 at ‘San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center’ by 50 of the original member countries of the organization. The charter was approved a month later on 28th July by the U.S. Senate and eventually, the organization was established in October.



Nationwide Dock Strike

The National Docks Delegate Conference of the Transport and General Workers Union rejected a proposal put forward by the committee, which led to a nationwide dock strike on 28th July, 1972. The proposal meant the industries will hire cheap laborers from container firms.



Paddy Ashdown Wins

The Social and Liberal Democrats party was formed in 1988, and on 28th July the same year, Paddy Ashdown was elected as its first leader. Ashdown was an MP for Yeovil, and in the Liberal Democrats election he earned a landslide victory by garnering 71.9% of the total votes.



Prisoners Released From The Maze

On this day, 80 prisoners were released from the HM Prison Maze, Northern Ireland in the year 2000. Then County Antrim jail released 26 loyalist paramilitaries and 52 republicans, with which the ‘Good Friday Agreement’ came to a conclusion.



Provisional Irish Republican Army Ends It Crusade

The Provisional Irish Republican Army or the Irish Republican Army is a paramilitary group which wanted to separate Northern Ireland from the domain of United Kingdom. This battle, which began decades ago, came to an end on this day in 2005, after they announced the end of the armed campaign.



Battle Of Cascina

The Battle of Cascina was fought on 28th July, 1364 among the troops of the Italian cities Pisa and Florence. The Pisans were led by John Hawkwood, while Galeotto Malatesta headed the Florence army. The battle was won by Florence and acclaimed artist Michelangelo was asked to make a painting signifying this victory, but the work was never completed.



Continental Army Arrives At Horn’s Hook

During the American Revolutionary War, ‘Horn’s Hook Fort’ was built on the Manhattan Island by the British to protect the island from Continental Army attack. However, on this day, the Continental Army lead by Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent and Colonel Israel Hutchinson reached the battery, but were defeated by the British army headed by Admiral Richard and General William Howe.



Battle Of Talavera

During the Peninsular War, the Battle of Talavera was fought jointly by an Anglo-Spanish force along with Spanish army, commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley and General Cuesta, against the French who had captured Madrid. This battle which went on for two days, concluded with the defeat of the French army on 28th July, 1809.



Battle Of Ezra Church

During the American Civil War, William Tecumseh Sherman was a General in the Union Army, and with his tactful supervision, helped his troops defend Atlanta. On this day, the Confederate soldiers, under the command of General John Bell Hood, made an attempt to capture Atlanta, but like the other attempts, this too was nullified by the Union forces on this day in 1864.



Declaration Of War By Austria-Hungary

The Archduke, Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serbian terrorist group ‘Black Hand’. A month after the occurrence of this incident, on 28th July, 1914, the combined power of Austria and Hungary, declared a war against Serbia.



Occupation Of Haiti

The President of Haiti was assassinated in 1915 and this led to socio-political unrest in the country. In order to bring the situation under control, the United States President Woodrow Wilson sent US troops to Haiti on 28th July, 1915. This development came to be known as the United States Occupation of Haiti.



Order No. 227 Issued

During World War II, the Soviet troops were staring defeat, because, instead of fighting back the German advances, the Soviet forces were retreating back. This was when the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin issued Order No. 227, on this day in 1942, which was also known as the ‘Not one step back!’



Firestorm In Hamburg

During World War II, the German city of Hamburg suffered immense loss including lives of thousands after a firestorm broke out. The cause of this storm was intensive bombing by the Royal Air Force and US Army Air Forces, fueled by the hot weather.



U.S Army Sent To Vietnam

During the Vietnam War, the United States supported South Vietnam in the struggle against North Vietnam. Time and again, the U.S sent troops to Vietnam to strengthen the power of South Vietnam and on 28th July, 1965, following the orders of President Lyndon B. Johnson, the U.S forces were sent to Vietnam, increasing the number of troops to 125,000.



‘CIA’ Report On US Bombing

During the Vietnam War, the Soviet, which was supporting North Vietnam, indicted that the U.S had bombed North Vietnam, with an intention to ruin the dikes and dams in the Asian country. As an answer to these accusations, the Nixon administration put forward a report by ‘CIA’, which said that the attacks did cause some harm to the dikes but it was not deliberate.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

Hawaii Clipper Lost

‘Pan American Airways’ wanted to provide its passengers a plane equipped with several luxuries, therefore, 3 flying boats were constructed which could land on water. One of them was called Hawaii Clipper and on 28th July, 1938, on its way to Guam to Manila, this plane disappeared along with 6 passengers and 9 crew members on board.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

Military Plane Crashes Into Empire State Building

On this day in 1945, a US military plane ‘B-25’ was on its way to LaGuardia Airport, New York City from New Bedford, Massachusetts. The day being too foggy, made the plane crash into the Empire State Building, resulting in the death of 14 people.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

The Tangshan Earthquake

On 28th July, 1976, the Tangshan region of People’s Republic of China was devastated by an earthquake which had a magnitude of around 7.8 to 8.2. The death toll recorded was more than 242,700 and the injured summed up to 164,851, which made this tragedy the biggest earthquake of the last century.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

Grand Pier, Weston-Super-Mare Fire

‘Grand Pier, Weston-super-Mar’ is a resort in North Somerset, which suffered huge losses after it caught fire in the early hours of 28th July, 2008. The fire began at the north tower, but the fire alarm did not respond to it and the fire station was called only when a person saw the blaze.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

‘Airblue Flight 202’ Crashes

The plane ‘Airblue Flight 202’ took off from the ‘Jinnah International Airport’, Karachi and headed towards the ‘Benazir Bhutto International Airport’, Islamabad. Unfortunately, the plane crashed at Margalla Hills, as undesirable weather conditions disrupted the contact between crew and the traffic control unit. This is considered the worst air accident of Pakistan till date, which killed all the 146 passengers as well as the 6 crew members.



Tazio Nuvolari’s Remarkable Victory

Tazio Nuvolari was an Italian racer who participated in the Grosser Preis von Deutschland (German Grand Prix) held on 28th July, 1935 and emerged victorious. In the contest, his competitors were Germans with the best of vehicles, but Nuvolari driving his ‘Alfa Romeo’ was the first one to reach the finish line.



Summer Olympics Opens

The Summer Olympics of 1984 was hosted by Los Angeles, California and the opening of the event occurred on 28th July. The two cities competing to host the event were Los Angeles and Tehran, but the latter declined to bid because of the ongoing political issues in Iran.



A Spectacular Performance By Dennis Martinez

Dennis Martinez, a former baseball player, was the first Nicaraguan player to participate in the Major League Baseball. On 28th July, 1991, he pitched a perfect game for the ‘Montreal Expos’ in the Major League Baseball against the ‘Los Angeles Dodgers’ season.



Les Ferdinand Enters ‘Tottenham Hotspur F.C.’

After playing for the ‘Newcastle United FC’, Les Ferdinand joined the ‘Tottenham Hotspur FC’ on this day on 1997. This was the team which Ferdinand supported as a child and the selection was a dream come true moment for him.



Ian Thorpe Wins Gold

Ian Thorpe, an Australian swimmer, skilled in freestyle, was allergic to chlorine as a child, but overcame this challenge to become one of the finest swimmers of the country. He participated in the Summer Olympics and made his country proud by winning maximum number of gold and on this day in 2000, he became the first swimmer to win 6 gold medals in a single World Championship.


Literature & Entertainment

Summer Jam At Watkins Glen

A rock festival known as the ‘Summer Jam’ was organized at the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Raceway on this day in 1973. In that event, renowned bands such as ‘The Band’, ‘Allman Brothers Band’ and ‘Grateful Dead’ performed and the show made headlines for the unbelievable crowd turnout and even earned a place in the Guinness Book of World Records.


Literature & Entertainment

‘National Lampoon's Animal House’ Releases

This movie which was a parody about the groups of 1960s was directed by John Landis and starred John Belushi, John Vernon, Tim Matheson, Donald Sutherland, Thomas Hulce and Verna Bloom. It was released on 28th July, 1978 and went on to become a huge box-office hit, and a benchmark in the career of John Landis.



Foundation Of Laguna Province Laid

Interestingly, during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the weaker sections of the society were shielded by the powerful ones and it was known as Encomienda. Following this relation, the Spaniards established the province of La Laguna on this day in 1571, which is now known as the Laguna province.



P B Shelley Elopes With Mary Godwin

One of the most renowned poets of the Romantic era, Percy Bysshe Shelley had a dramatic personal life. He was married to Harriet Westbrook when he fell in love with Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin. On this day in 1814, he eloped with Mary Godwin to Switzerland and the couple later tied the knot.



‘USS Constellation’ Commissioned

The ‘USS Constellation’ was built utilizing the materials of the ship by the same name which was dismantled the previous year. This warship was created by John Lenthall and on this day in 1855, it was commissioned. On its maiden journey, the vessel was led by Captain Charles H. Bell.



Vinnie Ream Hired By US Government

Vinnie Ream was one of the most renowned American sculptors and the statue of Abraham Lincoln, which she had created, helped her gain a lot of fame. She was given the contract of building a marble statue of Lincoln on 28th July, 1866 and Vinnie was only 18 years old back then.



Miami Incorporated

On this historic day in 1896, Miami was incorporated into the state of Florida. A group of 344 voters which included only men gathered at a building in Miami Avenue and with their votes the place was incorporated as The City of Miami.



‘Boeing B-17’ Maiden Flight

The ‘United States Army Air Corps’ (USAAC) wanted a multiengine bomber and to fulfill this requirement, aviation giant ‘Boeing’ built the aircraft which they called ‘Model 299’. On this day in 1935, this plane took off on its first flight, and after reporter Richard Smith termed it the ‘Flying Fortress’, the company soon adopted the name for all these aircrafts.



Battle Of London Airport

On 28th July, 1948, a few miscreants had planned to rob a treasure kept at London’s Heathrow Airport, which consisted of gold and other precious goods amounting to millions. However, the Metropolitan Police ‘Flying Squad’ received information about this impending robbery and their immediate action nullified the attempts of the burglars.



‘Union Mundial Pro Interlingua’ Comes Into Existence

Interlingua is an auxiliary language which came into existence in mid 1900s, and it was developed to provide a unique mode of communication to the scientists. On 28th July, 1955, the first meeting regarding this language took place in Tours, France and on the same day, the organization ‘Union Mundial Pro Interlingua’ (World Interlingua Union) was established.



Postcode System Begins In UK

After a trial conducted in Norwich relating to postcode, on the 28th of July, 1959, the entire United Kingdom was fragmented into postal districts. This was done to improve the efficiency of the mailing system, but today the postcode has many more purposes.



Formation Of Alpha Group

Alpha Group or Directorate “A” is a Russian organization, which is a wing of the country’s armed forces. It was formed on this day in 1974, and looks into concerns related to violence in public places.



Lockheed Sr-71 A/B Blackbird Creates Record

Lockheed Sr-71 A/B Blackbird was a long range, Mach 3+ manned aircraft used for reconnaissance by the United States Air Force. On this day in 1976, the Blackbird created a fastest flying record by clocking a speed of 2,193.16 mph.



Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Becomes Functional

The 800-mile long Trans-Alaska Pipeline System stretched from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to Valdez, Alaska and included 11 pumping stations in between. This pipeline was used to convey oil for the first time on this day in 1977.



Gun Control Law Of San Francisco

On this day in 1982, a law was passed in San Francisco restricting the sale, purchase and possession of handguns. This law was however, challenged and annulled because it did not go in accordance with the state constitution.



Kennewick Man Remains Discovered

On this day in 1996, the skeleton of a prehistoric man was found on the banks of the Columbia River, Kennewick. This is apparently the most ancient skeleton of a human found till date and is known as the Kennewick Man.



Quecreek Mine Rescue

In July 2002, a group of nine miners were working in the Quecreek Mine, when they broke into a wall and got trapped in a compartment which was four feet high. The place where they were trapped was 240 feet below the mine they were working in. The miners were stuck there for 77 hours, after which the rescue operation save them.



Mel Gibson Arrested

An officer named James Mee belonging to the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department pulled over acclaimed actor Mel Gibson and arrested him on charges of drunken driving. Gibson also possessed an open container containing alcohol, which is against the law of the United States.

People Born This Day

Jackie Kennedy
First Lady of the United States from 1961 to 1963 [ American ]
Karl Popper
Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method in favour of empirical falsification. [ British ]
Hugo Chavez
Former President of Venezuela [ Venezuelan ]
Marcel Duchamp
French Painter, Sculptor, Chess Player and Writer [ French ]
Terry Fox
Canadian Activist Who Became a National Hero and an Inspirational Figure for His Battle Against Cancer [ Canadian ]
Alberto Fujimori
Former President of Peru [ Peruvian ]
Robert Hooke
Philosopher [ British ]
Robert Hughes
Art Critic, Writer [ Australian ]
Richard Wright (Musician)
One of the Founders of the Progressive Rock Band ‘Pink Floyd’ [ British ]
Sir Garfield Sobers
One of the finest all-rounders in cricket [ Barbadian ]
Joaquín Torres García
Artist [ Uruguayan ]
Albert Namatjira
Artist [ Australian ]
Beatrix Potter
Author [ British ]
Charles H. Townes
Physicist [ American ]
Baruch Samuel Blumberg
Physician [ American ]
Pavel Cherenkov
Russian Physicist and Winner of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics for the Discovery of Cherenkov Radiation [ Russian ]
Victoria Baldesarra
Canadian Actress and Dancer [ Canadian ]
Brandon Calvillo
American Actor, YouTuber, and Instagram Star [ American ]
Manu Ginóbili
Argentine Former Professional Basketball Player Who Played at the ‘Shooting Guard' Position [ Argentinian ]
Angela Hitler
Half-Sister of Adolf Hitler [ Austrian ]
Soulja Boy
Rapper [ American ]
Cain Velasquez
Professional Wrestler and Retired Mixed Martial Artist [ American ]
Adrien Broner
Professional Boxer and Former WBO Super Featherweight Champion [ American ]
Spencer Boldman
Actor [ American ]
Lori Loughlin
Actress Known for Her Roles in the TV Series: 'Full House', '90210' and 'When Calls the Heart' [ American ]
Elizabeth Berkley
Actress [ American ]
Cher Lloyd
Singer & Songwriter [ British ]
Brad Simpson
Singer [ British ]
Anne Wojcicki
Co-FOunder & CEO of 23andMe [ American ]
Bradley Simpson
English Singer [ British ]
John David Washington
Former American Football Player & Actor Known for His Roles in Series 'Ballers' and Films: 'BlacKkKlansman' and 'Tenet' [ American ]
Harry Kane
One of the Best Football Strikers in the World [ British ]
Lauren Lindsey Donzis
American Actress Best Known for Her Role as ‘Molly’ in the Netflix Series ‘No Good Nick’ [ American ]
Cartia Mallan
YouTube Star [ Australian ]
Kobe Bryce Lankford
YouTuber [ American ]
Payton Moormeier
Destiny Etiko TikTok Star [ American ]
Shelby Bain
Canadian Dancer and Actress [ Canadian ]
Shantel Jackson
American Model, Actress and Businesswoman [ American ]
Juan Guaidó
Politician [ Venezuelan ]
Georgia Engel
Best Known for Her Role as ‘Georgette Franklin Baxter’ in the TV Sitcom ‘The Mary Tyler Moore Show’ [ American ]
Sally Struthers
Actress Known for Her Role of 'Gloria Stivic' in the Series 'All in the Family' [ American ]
Caiti Ward
YouTube Star [ Australian ]
Comedy YouTuber [ American ]
Kate Bolduan
Journalist and News Anchor for CNN [ American ]
Dick Ebersol
Television Executive Producer [ American ]
DJ Diddy
American Disc Jockey [ American ]
Huma Abedin
Political Staffer and Vice Chair of Hillary Clinton's 2016 Campaign [ American ]
Liz Cheney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Wyoming's At-Large District [ American ]
Dom Brack
American Social Media Influencer, YouTuber, and Actor [ American ]
King of Thailand [ Thai ]
Mia Hayward
TikTok Star [ American ]
Audrey Mika
YouTube Star [ American ]
Lauren Grace
Spanish TikTok Star [ Spanish ]
Benji Xavier
TikTok Star [ American ]
Leda Muir
American YouTuber [ American ]
Rianna Care
Canadian Instagrammer [ Canadian ]
American TikToker [ American ]

People Died This Day

Johann Sebastian Bach
One of the Greatest Composers of All Time [ German ]
William James Mayo
Physician and Surgeon [ American ]
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi
Baroque Composer & Virtuoso Violinist Known for His Violin Concertos 'The Four Seasons' [ Italian ]
Abraham Cowley
Poet [ British ]
Cyrano de Bergerac
Novelist and Playwright Known for His Play ‘Cyrano de Bergerac’ [ French ]
Otto Hahn
Chemist [ German ]
Abraham Pais
Physicist [ Dutch ]
Francis Crick
Co-discoverer of the Structure of the DNA Molecule, Nobel Prize Winner [ British ]
Thomas Cromwell
English statesman [ British ]
Maximilien de Robespierre
French Lawyer and Statesman & One of the Most Influential Figures of the 'French Revolution' [ French ]
Allvar Gullstrand
Swedish Optician and Ophthalmologist Who is Known for Study of Refraction of Light in the Human Eye [ Swedish ]
Marie Dressler
Actress, Comedian and Early Silent Film and Depression-Era Film Star [ Canadian ]
George Seaton
Screenwriter, Film Director [ American ]
Joseph Bonaparte
Older Brother of Napoleon Bonaparte [ Italian ]
Édouard-Henri Avril
French Painter, Commercial Artist and Illustrator of Erotic Literature [ French ]
Eileen Brennan
Best Known for Her Role as ‘Captain Doreen Lewis’ in the Film ‘Private Benjamin’ [ American ]
Gerda Wegener
Danish Illustrator, Painter and Partner of Transgender Woman Lili Elbe [ Danish ]
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