11th April In History

“The mark of your ignorance is the depth of your belief in injustice and tragedy. What the caterpillar calls the end of the world, the Master calls the butterfly.” - Richard Bach The reason we chose the quote above in comparison to the day – April 11- is because of the significance of impending doom that scientists relate to this very day. Unlike the Mayans, who believe that the world will end on 21 December, 2012, the day already far gone and we still doing what we do best, scientists have reasons to claim that the world might actually end on April 11th. The reason? Past events and simple calculations. Though none of this can be of surety, the results are interesting nonetheless. April 11th according to historians was the day, Jesus Christ; the apocalyptic preacher and founder of Christianity established the Passover and revealed of his second coming that would result in the end of the world. In coincidence, this very day the World War I began, Hitler passed the Anti-Semitic laws, Comet Hyakutake and Comet Hale-Bopp crosses the “evil-star” Algol and the earthquakes that almost buried Indonesia. With simple calculations of the days between the above mentioned events, Scientist found a trend that would be hard to disregard, a tally that points to the fact that 11 April might be the day the world ends. In the end, it’s hard to digest that life and evolution is one big circle and these events just prove that.




Flavius Anastasius Becomes The Byzantine Emperor

At the age of 61, Flavius Anastasius ascended the throne of Eastern Rome (Byzantine) after the death of Emperor Zeno. It was the Empress and widowed wife of Zeno, Ariadne, who chose Flavius to succeed her late husband overlooking Zeno’s own brother Longinus, who longed to be Emperor. A month later Flavius married Ariadne.



Bishop Stanislaus Of Kraków Is Executed By King Bolesław II Of Poland

Now venerated as Saint Stanislaus the Martyr, King Boleslaw killed the bishop after he found out that the bishop intended to overthrow him for his sexual immorality with the wives of his soldiers. Boleslaw hacked the bishop to death himself as his soldier refused to kill the bishop and threw the dismembered pieces of his body to the wolves. Apparently, the pieces of flesh miraculously regenerated and the sodden ground of blood was protected by four eagles.



William III And Mary II Are Crowned As Joint Sovereigns Of Scotland

In a time when co-regency was a rarity, following the abdication of James, the Parliament appointed William III and Mary II as joint rulers of Great Britain. On April 11, they swore sovereignty over Scotland.



The Treaty Of Fontainebleau Is Signed

The treaty which was signed between Napoleon I and the Austria Empire, Russia, Prussia ended the War of the Sixth Coalition and the rule of Napoleon as the Emperor of France. After the agreement, he was exiled by the allies to Elba.



Attempt To Assassinate Chinese Premier, Zhou Enlai Fails

On 11 April, 1955, a bomb on the The Kashmir Princess, an airline of Air India exploded killing sixteen on board. The attack, which was intended against the Chinese Premier, crashed into the South China Sea. Sources claim that Zhou was well informed in advance of the possible threat and did not board the plane. Only three people on board survived the attack.



United Kingdom Agrees To Singaporean Self-Rule

Following the stance taken by the first chief minister of Singapore, David Marshall and his successor Lim Yew Hock, the British agreed to grant Singapore full self-governance and withdraw British rule from the colonized lands.



The Trial Of Adolf Eichmann Begins In Jerusalem

The brain behind the organization of the Holocaust, which included the deportation of the Jew and the extermination camps, Adolf Eichmann was captured in Argentina by Israeli Intelligence services. Having been brought to trial in Jerusalem in 1961, he was found guilty of all the war crimes and sentenced to the gallows in 1962.



President Lyndon B. Johnson Signs The Civil Rights Act Of 1968

A week after King’s assassination riots, which was one of the worst social unrest since the civil war, President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act. The act took a firm stance against racism and forbade discrimination in buying, selling and the rental of housing in America, giving people from different races, color and religion equal opportunity.



Ugandan Dictator Idi Amin Is Deposed Following The Uganda-Tanzania War

With a Presidential tenure marred by human rights violations and civil wars resulting in the deaths of between 100,000 to 500,000 people, Ugandan Dictator Idi was finally deposed as president. His fall was marked by his attempt to annex the Kagera province of Tanzania, a move that led to the Ugandan-Tanzanian war and his flee to Saudi Arabia.



Peres–Hussein London Agreement Is Made

King Hussein of Jordan and Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister Shimon Peres met at the residence of Lord Mishcon in London to douse the conflicts between the two nations and establish a peace agreement. The agreement ended years of animosity.



Forty-Three African Nations Signed The African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty

Also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba, which is the main atomic research center of South Africa, 43- African states signed the Nuclear weapons free zone treaty on April 11, 1996. The treaty elucidated the ban of deployment, development and use of nuclear weapons in these treaty-ratified areas.



Battle Of Mohi Takes Place

In what was the Mongol invasion of Europe, Genghis Khan’s grandson, Batu Khan and his armies besieged the army of Bela IV of Hungary and destroyed his army and villages. The Mongol forces left the inhabited lands of Hungary in ruins and almost 25 percent of the population succumbed to the blade.



French Forces Reign Supreme At The Battle Of Ravenna

In what was part of the War of the League of Cambrai in the Italian Wars or also known as the War of the Holy League, French forces led by Gaston de Foix drove the Spanish-Papal armies out. Despite the victory, they failed to capitalize in Northern Italy and soon withdrew from the region.



The Battle Of Ceresole Of The Italian War Of 1542–46 Takes Place

Led by François de Bourbon, Count of Enghien, the French troops ousted coalition forces of the Spanish and the Holy Roman Empire during the Italian Wars. Once again, despite winning the battle, the French failed to exploit their advantage in Milan.



The Battle Of The Basque Roads

A battle that took place as part of the Napoleonic Wars off the Island of Aix, the British fleets fired against those of the French. Captained by Lord Cochrane, the British destroyed a majority of the French fleets but failed to achieve complete destruction despite the three-day continuous attack. Cochrane accused his Admiral James Gambier of reluctance to launch attacks. It was the last battle of Cochrane, his Royal Navy Career thus ended.



The Second Battle Of Rivas

The Battle of Rivas, which was fought between the Costa Rican militia and the Nicaraguan forces, headed by William Walker, reached a climax on April 11. That very night, Juan Santamaría, a drummer boy, who volunteered in the impromptu militia against Walker’s men, tossed a torch on the roof where Walker’s filibusters were residing. The flaming roof made Walkers men run for cover, leading to a gunfight battle with the opposition.



World War II: American Forces Liberate The Buchenwald Concentration Camp

In what was the closing stage of the war, the 6th Armored Division, part of the US Third Army, captained by Frederic Keffer marched into the largest concentration camp on German soil, the Buchenwald Concentration Camp. Despite being famished and emancipated, the prisoners gave the troop a hero’s welcome and some even threw some of the soldiers in the air out of celebration. Almost 35,000 prisoners were killed in the camp.



President Truman Relieves General Douglas Macarthur From Duty

Despite General Douglas being a World War II hero and the commander of the United Nations during the Korean War, President Truman on April 11th controversially relieved him from all military duties. The reason behind the let off was due to General Douglas’s public statements that apparently contradicted his administrative policies.



The Battle Of Nanri Island Takes Place

The battle was fought between the Republic of China Army and the People's Liberation Army over dispute over the Nanri Island, which was possessed by the Republic of China. The Republic of China Army trounced the People’s Liberation Army.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

Palm Sunday Tornado Outbreak

In what was the second biggest outbreak in history at that time and the deadliest Indiana has seen, 47 tornadoes lashed through Midwest of United States killing 271 people and injuring 1500. The states of Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois and Iowa were the worst hit.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

An 8.2 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Indonesia

The 13th strongest earthquake since 1900, the 8.2 magnitude earthquake off the coast of Sumatra, caused high alert and mass evacuations along the coasts of the Indian Ocean for fear of a tsunami. Despite fear of repeat of the 2004 Tsunami, only a light tsunami breached the island of Nias of Indonesia.



Ron Hextall Becomes The First Goaltender In NHL History To Score A Goal In The Playoffs

Ron Hextall, whose game style influenced the generation of goal keepers that followed, became the first goal keeper to score a goal in the playoffs. Hextall usual style of moving forward with the defenders and not keeping position to tend to the goal at all times influenced this historic goal against the Boston Bruins in the 1987–88 season.



Andrew Ponzi Smashes A World Record In Pocket Billiards

Crowned champion of the World 14.1 title that very year, Ponzi, who played during the Golden Era of pocket Billiards created a new world record by potting 127-balls straight in the New York Pocket Billiards Championship.



Jackie Robinson Became The First Black Player In Major-League History

On 11 April, Jackie Robinson created history by becoming the first African American to feature in the Major League in the modern era. The Brooklyn Dodgers added Robinson to their list of players and thus ended the racial segregation that marred the sport for years. Robinson went on to have an illustrious 10-year baseball career and eventually became a Hall of Fame inductee as well.


Literature & Entertainment

Premiere Of Johann Sebastian Bach's St Matthew Passion

The oratorio which was based on the passion of Lord Jesus Christ in the Gospel of Matthew made its debut on Good Friday at St. Thomas’s Church. The symphony has since been a masterpiece with regard to classical sacred music. This was the second passion setting by Bach; his first was St. John’s passion which came out in 1724.


Literature & Entertainment

The Concertgebouw In Amsterdam Is Inaugurated

The concert hall, which is still considered one of the finest concert halls around the world all due to its intricate acoustic setting, was inaugurated on April 11th, 1888. On its 125th anniversary in 2013, Queen Beatrix gave the historic building the royal title "Koninklijk".



The Benevolent And Protective Order Of Elks Is Formed

Now one of the largest fraternal bodies in the United States, with over a million members dealing with social and charitable issues, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks was founded on this very day.



Spelman College Is Founded In Atlanta, Georgia

Initiated as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, the Spelman College holds the distinction today in history as one of the oldest college institutions that catered to black or African-American women.



The City Of Tel Aviv Is Founded

Now a global city and Israel’s second most populous city, Tel Aviv was founded on April 11, 1909 by Jewish immigrants from Jaffa. Akiva Aryeh Weiss, president of the building society gathered the migrant families and organized a lottery to bifurcate the land between the families. On a sand dune with sea shells of grey and white, they cast lots for what would be their possession. This was regarded as the foundation of Tel Aviv, which now has the second largest economy in the Middle East, only after Abu Dhabi.



The Last Armored Cruiser Built By The German Empire, SMS Blücher Is Launched

Named after Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard von Blücher, the SMS Blücher was created to match the British’s invincible-class battle cruisers. Larger than normal, the cruiser was able to carry more heavy gun machinery than the normal but was unable to match the class of the British Navy cruisers.



The Nevill Ground Pavilion Is Destroyed In A Suffragette Arson Attack

In what was an all-women organized protest, on April 11th the Nevill Pavilion was reduced to ashes in protest to the no admittance for women. According to sources, the attack was provoked by a Kent official, who blatantly commented, “It is not true that women are banned from the pavilion. Who do you think makes the teas?” Till date, it is the only ground to have been attacked by suffragettes.



The International Labour Organization Is Founded

The international organization, which has fought for the rights and justice of the working class, given opportunities and maintained peace between unions, was founded on April 11th, 1919. In 1969, the organization was granted the Nobel Peace Prize for its contribution of sustaining peace between the different working classes of society around the world.



The Stone Of Scone Is Found On The Site Of The Altar Of Arbroath Abbey

The Stone of Scone, also known as the Coronation Stone, which has been used for centuries during the coronation of Scottish monarchs, was taken by Edward I as a spoil of war to Westminster Abbey. The stone was then put in his throne, which was called King Edward’s Chair. Though attempts were made to return the stone to Scotland, they all fell through, and for centuries the stone lay in Westminster Abbey. On December 25th 1950, four Scottish nationalist students stole the stone and in the attempt of retrieving it back to Scotland broke it in half. On April 11th, 1951, the stone was left on the Altar of Arbroath Abbey to be safe kept by the Church of Scotland. Police did retrieve the stone and return it to Westminster Abbey but many claim that the original stone was never returned.



Pope John XXIII Issues Pacem In Terris

While suffering from cancer and two months before his death, Pope John Paul XXIII issued the ‘Pacem In Terris’ as his Easter gift to the world – Catholics and non-Catholics. The doctrine elucidate the need for human equality, their rights and justice, equality among nations, and the family, which he regarded as the core of society. The doctrine highlighted the efforts of Pope Leo XIII who fought for the rights of the workers, eventually resulting in weekly holidays and employment personal funds.



Apollo 13 Is Launched

The seventh manned space mission as part of the Apollo Space Program, on April 11th, 1970, Apollo 13 was launched at 13:13 CST from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This was the third intended mission to land on the moon but it was cut short following an oxygen tank explosion. Six days later, the craft landed back on earth.



London Transport's Silver Jubilee Buses Are Launched

As part of the celebration of the silver jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II since her coronation, the London Transport's Silver Jubilee Buses were launched to mark this milestone of the present Queen.



1981 Brixton Riot

The Brixton Riot, which is also known as “Bloody Saturday”, resulted in 280 police officers injured as well as 45 civilians. With social and economic instability crossing limits and racial discrimination of the police towards the blacks reaching a boiling point, citizens took to the streets in protest and committed crimes such as arson and looting.



Four Hundred And Fifty Prisoners Riot At The Southern Ohio Correctional Facility In Lucasville, Ohio

A consequence of mismanagement, poor facilities and the insistence of administering tuberculosis vaccines to Muslim inmates, despite it being against their religious beliefs, the 1993 riots occurred in the The Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville. The riot saw an unprecedented coalition of the Aryan Brotherhood and Gangster Disciples and resulted in the deaths of 9 inmates and one officer.



The Ghriba Synagogue Bombing

Organized by the Al-Qaeda and carried out by suicide bomber Niser bin Muhammad Nasr Nawar, a natural gas tank that was loaded with explosives detonated in from of the Ghriba Synagogue, Tunisia. The blast killed two French nationals, 14 German tourists and three Tunisians.



President Hugo Chávez Is Ousted As President Of Venezuela For A Brief Time

About a million civilians marched towards the Presidential Palace of Miraflores in demand of the impeachment of Hugo Chavez. Nineteen people from both sides of the party were reported dead and Pedro Carmona was made the interim President.



President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Announces That Iran Has Successfully Enriched Uranium

On April 11th, 2006, former Iranian President Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that the nation has successfully enriched uranium and would be joining the other countries in their strive towards establishing nuclear technology and hence becoming a nuclear power.



Algiers Bombings Kill 33

Two suicide car bombings, one next to the President’s headquarters in the Algerian capital Algiers, and the other by a police station, killed a total of 33 civilians and injured more than a hundred. The Al Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attacks.



2011 Minsk Metro Bombing

The bombings which took place at the Minsk central station, Kastryčnickaja, at the peak time in the evening claimed the lives of 15 civilians and injured a little more than two hundred people. Most of the injuries were caused by the shrapnel that was attached to the explosives. Though the motive was not clear, Dzimitry Kanavalau and Vlad Kavalyou were found guilty and executed.



Iowa Became The First State To Impose A Cigarette Tax

In what was a first, the State of Iowa became the first to impose excise and federal taxes on cigarette and tobacco products. Soon, sighting the profit, other states too followed suit and within a few years tax was added to cigarettes in every state.



The First Live Radio Broadcast For A Boxing Match

In a match that was battled out between Johnny Ray and Johnny Dundee, through the KDKA radio station, listeners got their first experience of live commentary. The match ended with no result but the excitement of the listeners was at its height. Sport writer Florent Gibson was the commentator for the match.



Construction On The Empire State Building Was Completed

On April 11th, 1901, construction of the Empire State Building reached its completion making it the world’s tallest building, standing at 1,454 feet high, scaling 102 floors. The $637 million project was opened on 1 May, 1901.



Dodge Morgan Sailed Solo Nonstop Around The World In 150 Days

Setting the record for eastward sailing and the first American to successfully sail the world, Dodge Morgan became the first man to sail across the globe in 150-days without any stops. On his arrival, he told his supporters, “It takes three things to sail around the world alone. A good boat, an iron will and luck.



Kellogg’s Seizes Tours Of Their Food-Plant

Ending an 80-year tradition that was usually marked by the cacophony of excited children, Kellogg’s announced that they would shut their doors to future tours of their food plant. The reason behind the decision was their fear of spies from their competitors using such tours to figure out their secret ingredients.



Seven-Year-Old Jessica Dubroff Killed As Her Plane Crashes In Cheyenne, Wyoming

Attempting to be the youngest person to fly across the United States, Jessica’s quest was shockingly cut short when her plane crashed due to unfavorable weather, just as it took off from the Cheyenne Regional Airport. The crash killed her father, her flight instructor and herself. The news spread rapidly across the globe as media houses were keeping a close eye on her record attempt.



Apple Announced That The ITunes Store Had Sold More Than Two Million Movies

Since its inception in 2003, Apple proudly announced on April 11th, 2007 that it had successfully sold two million movies on its iTune stores.

People Born This Day

Edward Everett
Former American senator [ American ]
George Canning
Former British Prime Minister [ British ]
Mark Thomas
Comedian [ British ]
Leo Rosten
Humorist [ American ]
Joss Stone
Singer-songwriter who Rose to Fame with Her Debut Album 'The Soul Sessions' [ British ]
Vincent Gallo
Actor and Director Best Known for His Films: ‘Buffalo '66’ and ‘The Brown Bunny’ [ American ]
James Parkinson
Surgeon [ British ]
Mark Kennedy
A former member of the United States House of Representatives [ American ]
Jamini Roy
Indian painter [ Indian ]
Jyotiba Phule
Social Reformer [ Indian ]
Kasturba Gandhi
Wife of Mahatama Gandhi [ Indian ]
Alessandra Ambrosio
One of the World’s Sexiest Women [ American ]
Percy Lavon Julian
One of the First African Americans to Receive a Doctorate in Chemistry [ American ]
Anton LaVey
Author, Musician and the Founder of the Church of Satan and the Religion of Satanism [ American ]
Jeremy Clarkson
Broadcaster [ British ]
Jennifer Esposito
Best Known for Her Roles in the Films: ‘Crash’, ‘Summer of Sam’, ‘Don't Say a Word’ & ‘Taxi’ [ American ]
Julien Kang
Canadian Television Actor and Model [ Canadian ]
Dele Alli
English Professional Footballer Who Plays as an Attacking Midfielder [ British ]
Marcus Johns
American Actor and Former Viner [ American ]
Ethel Kennedy
Wife of Robert Francis Kennedy [ American ]
Richard Kuklinski
Criminal and Convicted Murderer [ American ]
Ava Sangster
British Actress [ British ]
Toddy Smith
American YouTuber and Former Vine Star [ American ]
Brandon Westenberg
TikTok Star and YouTuber [ American ]
Joel Grey
Actor, Singer, Dancer [ American ]
Viola Liuzzo
Civil Rights Activist [ American ]
Kailin Curran
Mixed Martial Artist [ American ]
Mark Teixeira
Baseball Player [ American ]
DJ Fresh
DJ, Musician, Record Producer [ British ]
Dodie Clark
YouTuber, Singer-Songwriter [ British ]
Septimius Severus
Roman Emperor from 193 to 211 [ Ancient Roman ]
Sebastian Moy
American Social Media Personality, TikToker, and Singer [ American ]
YouTube Star [ American ]
American Professional Wrestler [ American ]
Katy Mae
YouTube Star [ American ]
Gage Butler
YouTuber [ American ]
Suicide Christ
American Punk Rapper and One-Half of the Rap Duo ‘$uicideboy$’ [ American ]
Zachary Pym Williams
American Actor and Son of Actor and Comedian Robin Williams [ American ]
Bryan Tanaka
Dancer, Choreographer [ American ]
Liv Freundlich
American Actress [ American ]
Kid Buu
American Rapper and Singer [ American ]
Maddie Lambert
Youtuber [ American ]
Heather Poe
Wife of Mary Claire Cheney [ American ]
Robby Epicsauce
American Social Media Personality and YouTuber [ American ]
Meshach Taylor
Actor [ American ]
Super Siah
YouTuber [ American ]
Amy Van Nostrand
Actress [ American ]
Dakota Blue Richards
British Actress Known for Her Role ‘Lyra Belacqua’ in the Film ‘The Golden Compass’ [ British ]
Rohini Hattangadi
Actress [ Indian ]
Will Tudor
Actor [ British ]
Spanish TikTok Star [ Spanish ]
Shaughna Phillips
Reality Star [ British ]
Dillian Whyte
British Heavyweight Boxer [ British ]
Super Funk
Capron Funk's child [ American ]
Ariann Music
Social Media and TikTok Star [ Spanish ]
TikTok Star [ American ]
Monica Moran
Spanish TikTok Star [ Spanish ]
Ayden Lee
TikTok Star [ American ]
American YouTuber [ American ]
Brittany Jade Szabo
American TikToker [ American ]
American TikToker [ American ]

People Died This Day

Chinese Philosopher and Political Theorist [ Chinese ]
Primo Levi
Holocaust Survivor [ Italian ]
Bob Marley
Jamaican Singer, Musician and Songwriter Who is Considered One of the Pioneers of Reggae [ Jamaican ]
Jonathan Winters
Actor and Comedian Known for His Films: ‘It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World’ and ‘The Loved One’ [ American ]
Ahmed Ben Bella
1st President of Algeria [ Algerian ]
Anna Katharine Green
Detective Fiction Writer [ American ]
Kurt Vonnegut
Writer Known For His Satirical and Darkly Humorous Novels [ American ]
William Randolph
Colonist and Land Owner [ British ]
Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor of China’s Sui dynasty [ Chinese ]
Enver Hoxha
Former Communist Leader of Albania [ Albanian ]
Joseph Merrick
Elephant Man [ British ]
3rd Sultan of Delhi from 1211 to 1236 [ Persian ]
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