3rd August In History

August 3, the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (216th in case of leap years) marks as a significant date in the history of the world. Several notable incidents and events took place on this date over the centuries which included battles, uprisings, assassinations, expeditions, natural disasters, and events of political, technological and scientific significance among others. Some important events that occurred on this day include Christopher Columbus embarking on his first round-trip voyage between Spain and the Americas, John Rut sending the first known letter from North America, Germany declaring war on France during the Second World War and USS Nautilus (SSN-571) becoming the first submarine to reach the geographic North Pole. Let’s have a quick look at the events that took place on August 3.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 3rd August



1903

Politics

Rebels From The Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) In Kruševo Proclaims The Kruševo Republic

Rebels from the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) captured the Kruševo town in the Manastir Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire and proclaimed the political entity called Kruševo Republic in Kruševo on August 3, 1903, during the anti-Ottoman Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising. The revolutionary government led by Nikola Karev however existed for only 10 days till August 13, 1903 before the Ottoman government managed to destroy it.


1960

Politics

Niger Acquires Full Independence From France

Niger resolved to depart from the French Community on July 11, 1960, and acquired full independence from France on August 3 that year. Hamani Diori became the first President of the Republic of Niger.


2005

Politics

President Of Mauritania Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya Is Ousted By A Military Coup

While President of Mauritania Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya was in Saudi Arabia attending the funeral of King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, the Armed Forces of Mauritania carried out a coup d'état in Mauritania on August 3, 2005 and ousted Taya and replaced him by the Military Council for Justice and Democracy (CMJD), led by Ely Ould Mohamed Vall.


881

Wars

Battle Of Saucourt-en-Vimeu

The Battle of Saucourt took place on August 3, 881 at Saucourt-en-Vimeu. It was fought between the Christian forces of Carolingian joint Kings Louis III of France and Carloman II and Danish forces of pagan Viking warriors and resulted in the victory of Louis and Carloman. The conflict is celebrated in the Old High German poem ‘Ludwigslied’.


908

Wars

Battle Of Eisenach

The Battle of Eisenach occurred on August 3, 908, in Eisenach, Thuringia. It witnessed a crushing victory of the invading Hungarian force over an East Frankish army that was composed of troops from Franconia, Saxony, and Thuringia and led by Duke Burchard of Thuringia.


1342

Wars

The Siege Of Algeciras Begins

The Siege of Algeciras was started by the King of Castile and Leon, Alfonso XI with the help of fleets from the Kingdom of Aragon and the Republic of Genoa on August 3, 1342 to capture the Al-Jazeera Al-Khadra city during the Spanish Reconquista. The siege continued for 21 months till March 26, 1344 and resulted in a decisive Castillian victory.


1601

Wars

The Battle Of Goroszló

The Battle of Goroszló or the Battle of Guruslău took place on August 3, 1601, during the Long War. The conflict witnessed combined forces of the Habsburg Monarchy under Giorgio Basta, the Cossacks and Wallachia under Michael the Brave defeating the Transylvanian forces under Sigismund Báthory resulting in capture of Transylvania by Austria.


1645

Wars

The Second Battle Of Nördlingen

The second Battle of Nördlingen, also referred as the Battle of Allerheim, occurred in Alerheim, near Nördlingen (modern-day Germany) on August 3, 1645. It was fought by France and its Protestant German allies against the troops of the Holy Roman Empire and the latter’s Bavarian Catholic league allies and resulted in a French victory.


1914

Wars

Germany Invades Belgium & Declares War On France

Germany demanded free passage through Belgium for garnering quick victory against France during the First World War. When Belgium refused to comply, Germany invaded Belgium and declared war against France on August 3, 1914.


1940

Wars

Italian Conquest Of British Somaliland Begins

The Italian conquest of British Somaliland began on August 3, 1940, as part of the East African Campaign during the Second World War. The conflict with the Italian, Eritrean and Somali forces of Fascist Italy on one side and the British, Commonwealth and Somali irregulars on the other concluded on August 19 that year resulting in Italian victory and annexation of British Somaliland to Italian East Africa.


1936

Disasters & Natural Calamities

A Firestorm Annihilates Kursha-2 In The Meshchera Lowlands, Ryazan Oblast, Russia

The industrial community Kursha-2 located in the Central Meshchyora, Ryazan Oblast, Russia was completely destroyed by a firestorm on August 3, 1936. The disaster resulted in death of 1200 people and only 20 survived, marking it as one of the deadliest wildfires in history.


1852

Sports

The First Harvard–Yale Regatta Or Yale-Harvard Boat Race

The first Harvard–Yale Boat Race between Harvard University and Yale University, which also marked as the first American intercollegiate athletic event, was held on August 3, 1852. The race was won by Harvard University.


1921

Sports

Major League Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis Permanently Bans Eight Chicago Black Sox From Professional Baseball

Although the eight members of the Chicago White Sox who were charged for their involvement in the Black Sox Scandal, a Major League Baseball game-fixing scandal, were acquitted by a Chicago court on August 2, 1921, Major League Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis permanently banned them from professional baseball on August 3 that year.


1936

Sports

Jesse Owens Wins The First Of His Four Gold Medals In The 1936 Olympic Games

American track and field athlete Jesse Owens won a gold medal in the 100 metre dash, defeating his teammate and college friend Ralph Metcalfe on August 3, 1936 during the 1936 Olympic Games. He then went on to win three more gold medals at this international multi-sport event that was held in Berlin, Germany that year.


1949

Sports

The Basketball Association Of America Changes Its Name To National Basketball Association After Merging With National Basketball League

The Basketball Association of America was founded in New York City on June 6, 1946. The league renamed itself as the National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949 following its merger with the competing National Basketball League (NBL).


1057

Literature & Entertainment

Frederik Van Lotharingen Is Chosen As First Belgian Pope Stephen IX

Following the death of Pope Victor II, Frederik van Lotharingen was elected as the new Pope Stephen IX on August 3, 1057. He thus became the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States on that day and remained so till his death on March 29, 1058.


1778

Literature & Entertainment

The Opera House La Scala In Milan, Italy Is Inaugurated

The Opera House La Scala, originally called the Nuovo Regio Ducale Teatro alla Scala (New Royal-Ducal Theatre alla Scala), located in Milan, Italy was inaugurated on August 3, 1778. Antonio Salieri's opera ‘Europa riconosciuta’ was first performed for the inauguration of the theatre.


1946

Literature & Entertainment

Santa Claus Land Opens In Santa Claus, Indiana, US

The combination theme park and water park Santa Claus Land, renamed later as Holiday World & Splashin' Safari, located in Santa Claus, Indiana, US was opened on August 3, 1946. It is the first themed amusement park of the world.


8

Trivia

Roman Empire General Tiberius, Later The Second Roman Emperor, Defeats The Dalmatae

Tiberius, one of the greatest Roman generals, defeated the Dalmatae on the river Bosna on August 3, 8 AD. He went on to succeed his stepfather, Augustus, as the second Roman Emperor.


435

Trivia

Roman Emperor Theodosius II Sends Ecumenical Patriarch Of Constantinople Nestorius Into Exile

Roman Emperor Theodosius II issued an imperial edict on August 3, 435, that exiled Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Nestorius (regarded as the originator of the Christian theological doctrine called Nestorianism) from the monastery in Antioch. Nestorius was sent to a monastery in the Great Oasis of Hibis (al-Khargah) in Egypt.


1031

Trivia

Grimketel Canonizes Olaf II Of Norway As Saint Olaf

Former King of Norway Olaf II Haraldsson who died in the Battle of Stiklestad on July 29, 1030 was canonised as Saint Olaf at Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell.


1527

Trivia

The First Known Letter Is Sent By John Rut From North America

English mariner John Rut, who was selected by King of England Henry VIII to command an expedition to North America to find the Northwest Passage, was known to have sent the first letter from North America while he was in St. John's, Newfoundland.


1678

Trivia

Robert LaSalle Builds The Sailing Vessel Le Griffon

French explorer and fur trader Robert LaSalle built the sailing vessel Le Griffon. It was the first known ship that was constructed on the Great Lakes.


1795

Trivia

Treaty Of Greenville Is Signed

The Treaty of Greenville was signed on August 3, 1795, at Fort Greenville, presently Greenville, Ohio. It was a treaty between the US and indigenous nations of the Northwest Territory that ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country.


1829

Trivia

The Treaty Of Lewistown Is Signed

The Shawnee and Seneca people signed the Treaty of Lewistown with the US on August 3, 1829. According to the treaty the Shawnees and Senecas living at Lewistown, Ohio, gave up their claim to the land in Ohio in exchange for land west of the Mississippi River where the rest of the Ohio Senecas were already living.


1859

Trivia

The American Dental Association Is Established

26 dentists representing different dental societies in the US founded the American Dental Association (ADA) at Niagara Falls, New York, on August 3, 1859.


1900

Trivia

Harvey Firestone Establishes The Firestone Tire And Rubber Company

American businessman Harvey Firestone founded the American tire company called Firestone Tire and Rubber Company on August 3, 1900.


1907

Trivia

Standard Oil Of Indiana Is Fined The Maximum Penalty For Illegal Rebating To Freight Carriers

Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis fined Standard Oil of Indiana the maximum penalty of $29,240,000 for illegal rebating to freight carriers. It was the largest fine imposed on a corporation till such time. The corporation quickly appealed and eventually both the conviction and the fine were reversed.


1948

Trivia

Whittaker Chambers Accuses Alger Hiss Of Spying For The Soviet Union

On August 3, 1948, former U.S. Communist Party member Whittaker Chambers testified under subpoena before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). He mentioned that while doing federal duty American government official Alger Hiss had secretly remained a communist and a member of the underground "Ware group" in the late 1930s. Eventually Hiss faced serious investigation being accused of spying for the Soviet Union. He was convicted in January 1950 on two counts of perjury.


1958

Trivia

USS Nautilus (SSN-571) Becomes The First Submarine To Reach The Geographic North Pole

The first operational nuclear-powered submarine of the world, USS Nautilus (SSN-571) reached the geographic North Pole on August 3, 1958, at 2315 (EDT) and with this became the first watercraft to do so. It emerged as the first submarine to complete the first successful submerged voyage around the North Pole.


1972

Trivia

The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Is Ratified By The United States Senate

The arms control treaty called Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) that was signed by the US President Richard Nixon and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev on May 26, 1972, during the 1972 Moscow Summit was ratified by the United States Senate on August 3, 1972.


1975

Trivia

The Agadir Air Disaster

A Boeing 707 passenger flight chartered by Royal Air Maroc to carry 181 Moroccan workers and their families from the Le Bourget Airport in Paris, France to the Inezgane Airport in Agadir, Morocco on August 3, 1975, crashed into a mountain while approaching the Inezgane Airport. All the 188 occupants of the flight including passengers and crew were killed, marking the crash as the deadliest aviation disaster involving a Boeing 707, as also the deadliest one in Morocco.


1997

Trivia

Sky Tower Opens In Downtown Auckland, New Zealand

The telecommunications and observation tower called the Sky Tower located in Auckland, New Zealand, opened on August 3, 1997. It took two years and nine months to construct the 328 metres (1,076 ft) tall tower that forms part of the SkyCity Auckland casino complex and stands as the tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere and as the world’s 27th tallest tower.


2004

Trivia

The Pedestal Of The Statue Of Liberty Is Reopened

The Statue of Liberty and the Liberty Island were closed to the public immediately after the September 11, 2001 attacks. While the island was re-opened at the end of that year, the pedestal of the statue was re-opened on August 3, 2004.


2010

Trivia

Karachi Riots

Pakistani politician Raza Haider, a member of the Muttahida Qaumi Movement political party, who served as a member of the Provincial Assembly of Sindh, was assassinated on the night of August 2, 2010, in Karachi, Pakistan. Widespread riots started in Karachi the following day. The riots resulted in death of at least 85 people and economic losses of about 17 billion Pakistani rupees (Approx. US$200 million).


1492

Inventions & Discoveries

Christopher Columbus Departs From Palos De La Frontera, Spain With Three Ships

Italian explorer and colonizer Christopher Columbus departed from Carolina Palos de la Frontera, Spain at 8:00 on the morning of August 3, 1492, with three ships, the Santa Maria, the Niña (real name Santa Clara) and the Pinta. It was the first of his four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas. He made it to find a shorter route to India and the Orient.


1811

Inventions & Discoveries

First Ascent Of Jungfrau

Brothers J. Meyer and H. Meyer of Aarau and two chamois hunters A. Volken and J. Bortis from Valais, reached the summit of Jungfrau, the third highest mountain of the Bernese Alps, on August 3, 1811, marking the first ascent of the mountain.


1977

Inventions & Discoveries

The TRS-80 Is Launched By Tandy Corporation

Tandy Corporation announced launch of the desktop microcomputer the TRS-80 (Tandy RadioShack) on August 3, 1977.


People Born This Day

Rupert Brooke
(1887-1915)
Poet [ British ]
Martha Stewart
(1941-)
Businesswoman [ American ]
Tom Brady
(1977-)
American Football Quarterback [ American ]
Stanley Baldwin
(1867-1947)
Former British Prime Minister [ British ]
Alfred Deakin
(1856-1919)
Former Prime Minister of Australia [ Australian ]
Joseph Paxton
(1803-1865)
Gardener & Architect [ British ]
P. D. James
(1920-2014)
Writer [ British ]
Tony Bennett
(1926-)
Pop Singer [ American ]
James Hetfield
(1963-)
Musician, Songwriter [ American ]
Evangeline Lilly
(1979-)
Actress [ Canadian ]
Sonny Bill Williams
(1985-)
Boxer, Rugby Player [ New Zealander ]
Ryan Lochte
(1984-)
Champion Swimmer [ American ]
Hannah Simone
(1980-)
Actress [ Canadian ]
Jules Bianchi
(1989-2015)
F1 Driver [ French ]
Lucky Dube
(1964-2007)
Musician [ South African ]
Landry Bender
(2000-)
Actress [ American ]
Ernie Pyle
(1900-1945)
Journalist [ American ]
Nadeshot
(1992-)
YouTube star, Gamer [ American ]
Rachel Meyer
(1985-)
YouTube Star [ American ]
Mamie Gummer
(1983-)
Actress [ American ]
Neil Magny
(1987-)
American Mixed Martial Artist [ American ]
Karlie Kloss
(1992-)
Model [ American ]
Shanelle Workman
(1978-)
Actress [ American ]
Haakon VII of Norway
(1872-1957)
King of Norway [ Danish ]
Grav3yardgirl
(1985-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Boonk Gang
(1996-)
Rapper [ American ]
Brandon Rogers
(1988-)
Social Media Celebrity [ American ]
D.R.A.M.
(1988-)
Rapper [ German ]
Noah Riley
(2000-)
Instagram Star, Viner [ American ]
Sean Fujiyoshi
(1991-)
Actor [ American ]
Matt Haag
(1992-)
Internet Entrepreneur [ American ]
Cozi Zuehlsdorff
(1998-)
Actress [ American ]
Isaiah Washington
(1963-)
Actor [ American ]
John C McGinley
(1959-)
Actor [ American ]
Michael Ealy
(1973-)
Actor [ American ]
Lisa Ann Walter
(1963-)
Actress [ American ]
Charlotte Casiraghi
(1986-)
Editor-at-large, Equestrian Sports Ambassador [ Monacan ]


People Died This Day

Bertil Gotthard Ohlin
(1899-1979)
Economist [ Swedish ]
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
(1918-2008)
Author [ Russian ]
Joseph Conrad
(1857-1924)
Writer [ Polish ]
Lenny Bruce
(1925-1966)
Standup Comedian [ American ]
Colette
(1873-1954)
Novelist [ French ]
Alfred Schnittke
(1934-1998)
Composer [ German ]
Henri Cartier-Bresson
(1908-2004)
Photographer and Painter [ French ]
John Gardner
(1926-2007)
Writer [ British ]
Richard Arkwright
(1732-1792)
Inventor [ British ]
Emile Berliner
(1851-1929)
Inventor [ American ]
Roger Casement
(1864-1916)
Diplomat [ Irish ]
Thorstein Veblen
(1857-1929)
Economist [ American ]
Stephen Ward
(1912-1963)
Accused in the Profumo Affair scandal [ British ]
Carolyn Jones
(1930-1983)
Actress [ American ]
James II of Scotland
(1430-1460)
King of Scots [ Scottish ]
Konstantin Rokossovsky
(1896-1968)
Soviet Officer [ Polish ]
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