2nd August In History

August 2, the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in case of leap years) is an important date in the history of mankind. The date has remained witness to several notable incidents that took place over the centuries including wars, uprisings, expeditions, natural disasters, and events of political and social significance among others. Some important events that occurred on this day include signing of the United States Declaration of Independence, passage of the Government of India Act 1858, opening of first underground tube railway in London, Carl D. Anderson discovering the Positron and Adolf Hitler becoming Führer of Germany. Let’s have a quick glance at the events that took place on August 2.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 2nd August



461

Flavius Ricimer Deposes And Kills Western Roman Emperor Majorian

Western Roman Emperor Flavius Iulius Valerius Maiorianus, simply known as Majorian, was arrested near Tortona. He was then deposed and killed by powerful Romanized Germanic General Flavius Ricimer on August 2, 461.


1873

The First Cable Car Runs On The Clay Street Hill Railroad

According to at least one source, the first run of the cable car occurred on the Clay Street Hill Railroad on August 2, 1873. This railroad marked as the first successful cable hauled street railway that was located on Clay Street in San Francisco, California, US.


1776

Politics

The United States Declaration Of Independence Is Signed

The United States Declaration of Independence was primarily signed at the Pennsylvania State House, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on August 2, 1776. The thirteen former colonies which proclaimed themselves the “United States of America," were represented by 56 delegates to the Second Continental Congress who endorsed the Declaration of Independence that was approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776.


1830

Politics

King Of France Charles X Abdicates The Throne In Favour Of His Grandson Prince Henri, Count Of Chambord

In response to the July Revolution of 1830, King of France Charles X abdicated the throne and urged his cousin Louis Philippe of Orléans to proclaim his grandson Prince Henri, Count of Chambord, as Henry V, King of France.


1923

Politics

Calvin Coolidge Becomes President Of The United States

Vice President of the United States Calvin Coolidge succeeded Warren G. Harding as the 30th President of the United States upon the sudden death of Harding on August 2, 1923.


1934

Politics

Adolf Hitler Becomes Führer Of Germany

German politician Adolf Hitler, who was serving as the Chancellor of Germany from January 30, 1933, became Führer ("Leader") of Germany upon death of President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg on August 2, 1934. The position of "President" was replaced by Führer ("Leader") with the office of president being abolished and its powers merged with that of the chancellor. Hitler rose to power as the head of state and that of the government and was formally named as Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor).


338 BC

Wars

Battle Of Chaeronea

The Battle of Chaeronea took place near Chaeronea, Boeotia, Greece on August 2, 338 BC. It was a conflict between the Macedonians led by their King Philip II and a combined force of some Greek city-states led by Athens and Thebes. The battle ended with a decisive Macedonian victory and establishment of Macedonian hegemony over the majority of Southern Greece, except for Sparta.


216 BC

Wars

The Battle Of Cannae

The Battle of Cannae fought between the Roman Republic and Carthage near the ancient village of Cannae in Apulia, southeast Italy on August 2, 216 BC was a major conflict of the Second Punic War. It resulted in a Carthaginian victory with the Carthaginian army under General Hannibal besieging and nearly annihilating a comparatively larger Roman force led by Consuls Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus. The conflict is counted among the worst defeats in Roman history and among the greatest tactical achievements in military history.


1377

Wars

The Battle On Pyana River

The Battle on Pyana River was fought between forces of the Blue Horde Khan Arapsha (Arab-Shah Muzaffar) and a Russian alliance composed of the Pereyaslavl, Murom, Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl and Yuryev principalities. The conflict took place on August 2, 1377 and resulted in a victory of Blue Horde Khan Arapsha.


1897

Wars

The Siege Of Malakand Ends

The British Siege of Malakand was carried out in the Malakand region, a tribal area in the North West Frontier Province of the then colonial British India. It started on July 26, 1897, and ended with a British victory on August 2 that year when a relief column sent from British positions to the south reached the British garrison in the Malakand states.


1914

Wars

German Occupation Of Luxembourg Begins During First World War

Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, 1914 during the First World War and on the following day the German occupation of Luxembourg began. Luxembourg remained under full occupation of the German Empire till the end of the war on November 11, 1918.


1943

Wars

Jewish Prisoners Revolt In Treblinka

700 Jewish prisoners at the Nazi Germany operated Treblinka extermination camp in occupied Poland launched an uprising at 3:45 p.m. on August 2, 1943. They stole rifles, hand grenades, and pistols and set fire to buildings and surrounding structures and exploded a tank of petrol. The insurgency was suppressed by machine-gun fire resulting in death of most of the insurgents with only about 200 Jews managing to escape the camp. Many of the escapees were eventually caught and killed while some around 70 including Richard Glazar, Jankiel Wiernik, Chil Rajchman and Samuel Willenberg are known to have survived till the end of the Second World War.


1943

Wars

The Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 Is Sunk By Japanese Destroyer Amagiri

The Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 of the US was rammed and sunk by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri on August 2, 1943, in the Pacific theater during the Second World War. Lieutenant (junior grade) John F. Kennedy, future President of the United States, was commanding the ship. He managed to save his surviving crew, excepting two, after the sinking of the ship.


1944

Wars

Convoy HX 300 Reaches Safely In The Western Approaches

Convoy HX 300, the largest trade convoy of the Second World War, comprising 166 ships, started off from Halifax on July 17, 1944 and reached safely in the Western Approaches on August 2 that year.


1990

Wars

The Iraqi Invasion Of Kuwait Begins

The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait began on August 2, 1990. The two-day operation led to an Iraqi victory with Iraq annexing Kuwait and setting up a puppet government called the "Republic of Kuwait" to rule over the latter, eventually paving way for the Gulf War.


1922

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The 1922 Swatow Typhoon

An intensified tropical cyclone made landfall on the Chinese coast near the Swatow city late on August 2 or early on August 3 in 1922. The devastating Swatow Typhoon resulted in death of over 50,000 people making it one of the deadliest typhoons in history.


1968

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The Casiguran Earthquake

An earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.6 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent) occurred in Casiguran, Aurora, Philippines on 04:19:22 local time on August 2, 1968. It generated a small non-destructive tsunami and caused death of around 207–271 people and injury of 261 others. Most of the deaths occurred when a six-story building in Manila collapsed.


1274

Trivia

Edward I Returns To England From The Ninth Crusade

Edward I, the first son of King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine Henry III, joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land. Meanwhile Henry III died on November 16, 1272, leaving Edward I as his successor. Edward I was informed of his father’s death while he was on his way home from the Ninth Crusade in 1272. He returned to England on August 2, 1274 and was crowned as King at Westminster Abbey on August 19 that year.


1415

Trivia

Sir Thomas Grey Is Beheaded For Conspiring In The Southampton Plot

The Southampton Plot was conspired by Sir Thomas Grey, Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, and Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge to assassinate King Henry V of England and replace him with Richard of Conisburgh’s brother-in-law Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March. Mortimer however revealed the conspiracy to the King on July 31, 1415, leading to prompt arrest and execution of the three conspirators. Grey was beheaded on August 2, 1415, at the North Gate of Southampton.


1790

Trivia

Inauguration Of The United States Census

The United States Census was conducted for the first time on August 2, 1790.


1858

Trivia

The Government Of India Act 1858 Is Passed

On August 2, 1858, the Government of India Act 1858 was passed. Provisions of this Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom led to transfer of rule of British India from the hands of the British East India Company to that of the British Crown.


1869

Trivia

Edo Society Class System Of Japan Is Abolished

Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Edo society class system in Japan was dismantled on August 2, 1869.


1870

Trivia

First Underground Tube Railway Opens In London

A 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge railway was laid in the tunnel called Tower Subway beneath the River Thames in central London, England. The tunnel connects Tower Hill and Vine Lane (off Tooley Street). The underground tube railway conveying passengers from one end to the other was opened in the Tower Subway on August 2, 1870, marking it as the first of its kind in the world. This system however proved unreliable and uneconomic and was thus closed in December same year.


1903

Trivia

The Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising Starts

The Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization started the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottoman Empire on August 2, 1903. It was an organised revolt that covered vast area including Manastir (Bitola), Salonica, Adrianople and Kosovo vilayets of the Ottoman Empire. It continued till middle of October before being quashed.


1916

Trivia

Royal Italian Navy Battleship Leonardo Da Vinci Sinks In Taranto

While loading ammunition, the Royal Italian Navy Battleship Leonardo da Vinci capsized in Taranto harbour following an internal magazine explosion on the night of August 2/3 in 1916. The mishap caused death of 21 officers and 227 enlisted men. Although the incident may have been accidental, the Italians blamed Austro-Hungarian saboteurs for it.


1918

Trivia

The 1918 Vancouver General Strike

The 1918 Vancouver General Strike took place on August 2 that year. It marked as the first general strike in the history of Canada.


1937

Trivia

The Marihuana Tax Act Of 1937 Is Signed Into Law In The US

The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was signed into law by the then US President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1937. The act placed a tax on the sale of cannabis.


1939

Trivia

The Albert Einstein–Leó Szilárd Letter To US President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor Leó Szilárd wrote a letter in consultation with fellow Hungarian physicists Eugene Wigner and Edward Teller. It was signed by Albert Einstein and sent to the then President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939. The letter suggested that the US should commence a nuclear program as Germany might develop atomic bombs. The letter urged Roosevelt to take action in this regard which eventually paved way for the Manhattan Project that produced the first nuclear weapons.


1944

Trivia

Democratic Federal Macedonia, The First Macedonian State, Is Set Up

Democratic Federal Macedonia, the first Macedonian state, was set up and proclaimed at the First Plenary Session of the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM) in the Bulgarian occupation zone in Yugoslavia on August 2, 1944, during the National Liberation War of Macedonia at the time of the Second World War. Presently the date is celebrated as Day of the Republic in North Macedonia and is observed as major national holiday.


1945

Trivia

Potsdam Conference Ends

The Potsdam Conference started in Potsdam, Germany on July 17, 1945 and ended on August 2 of that year. The Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom participated in the conference to decide the way of administering Germany. Other issues that found place included matters on peace treaty, establishment of post-war order and managing the effects of the war.


1947

Trivia

BSAA Avro Lancastrian Star Dust Crashes Into A Mountain

The British South American Airways (BSAA) Avro Lancastrian airliner Star Dust was flying from the Morón Airport in Buenos Aires, Argentina to the Los Cerrillos Airport in Santiago, Chile when it crashed into Mount Tupungato, in the Argentine Andes on August 2, 1947. An extensive search operation was carried out but the wreckage could not be located. It was discovered after over five decades in 1998 when two Argentine mountaineers climbing Mount Tupungato happened to find the wreckage of a Rolls-Royce Merlin aircraft engine apart from some other things.


1973

Trivia

The Summerland Disaster

A fire broke out at the Summerland leisure centre in Douglas on the Isle of Man on the night of August 2, 1973. The disaster caused death of 50 people and seriously injured 80 others.


1980

Trivia

The Bologna Massacre

A time bomb hidden in an unattended suitcase exploded at 10:25 CEST in an air-conditioned waiting room at the railway station in Bologna, Italy. The terrorist bombing attack killed 85 people and wounded over 200. Although the neo-fascist terrorist organization Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari denied having any involvement in the attack, several members of the group were sentenced for it.


1985

Trivia

The Delta Air Lines Flight 191 Crashes

The Delta Air Lines Flight 191, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar that was flying from Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport in Broward County, Florida to the Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles with an intermediate stop at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) crashed at DFW on August 2, 1985. The crash caused death of 137 people and injury of 28 others.


1989

Trivia

Pakistan Re-joins The Commonwealth Of Nations

Pakistan left the Commonwealth of Nations on January 30, 1972 protesting Commonwealth’s recognition of Bangladesh, which declared independence from Pakistan in 1971. Pakistan later re-joined the Commonwealth on August 2, 1989.


1989

Trivia

The 1989 Valvettiturai Massacre

Indian Army soldiers of an Indian Peace Keeping Force carried out a massacre killing 64 Sri Lankan Tamil civilians in the small coastal town of Valvettiturai, on the Jaffna Peninsula in Sri Lanka on August 2, 1989.


1999

Trivia

The Gaisal Train Disaster

Two trains, namely the Brahmaputra Mail and the Avadh Assam Express running at high speeds collided and exploded at the Gaisal station in Uttar Dinajpur, West Bengal on August 2, 1999. The accident resulted in death of at least 290 people.


2014

Trivia

The Kunshan Explosion

A massive dust explosion occurred at the automotive parts factory of Zhongrong Metal Production Company at 7:37 am in Kunshan, Jiangsu, China, on August 2, 2014. The explosion caused death of 146 workers and injury of 114 others.


1610

Inventions & Discoveries

Henry Hudson's Ship Enters Hudson Bay During His Search For The Northwest Passage

While searching for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company, English sea explorer and navigator Henry Hudson became the first European to see the Hudson Strait and the Hudson Bay, both of which were later named after him. His ship Half Moon entered Hudson Bay on August 2, 1610.


1932

Inventions & Discoveries

Carl D. Anderson Discovers The Positron

American physicist Carl D. Anderson discovered the positron (antiparticle of the electron). He shared the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physics with Austrian-American physicist Victor Hess for such feat.


People Born This Day

Isabel Allende
(1942-)
Writer [ Chilean ]
James Baldwin
(1924-1987)
Novelist [ American ]
John W. Snow
(1939-)
Former United States Secretary of the Treasury [ American ]
Kevin Smith
(1970-)
[ New Zealander ]
Bill Scott
(1920-1985)
American voice actor [ American ]
George Habash
(1926-2008)
Founder of The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine [ Israeli ]
Prafulla Chandra Ray
(1861-1944)
Chemist [ Indian ]
John Tyndall
(1820-1893)
Physicist [ Irish ]
Mary-Louise Parker
(1964-)
Actress [ American ]
Shimon Peres
(1923-2016)
Former President of Israel [ Israeli ]
Edith Cowan
(1861-1932)
Social Campaigner [ Australian ]
Peter O'Toole
(1932-2013)
Actor [ Irish ]
Constantine I
(1868-1923)
King of Greece [ Greek ]
Jacinda Barrett
(1972-)
Actress, Model [ Australian ]
Chrystia Freeland
(1968-)
Deputy Prime Minister of Canada [ Canadian ]
Charli XCX
(1992-)
Singer [ British ]
Britt Nicole
(1985-)
Singer, Songwriter [ American ]
Mark Lee
(1999-)
Rapper [ Canadian ]
Vikram Barn
(1995-)
YouTuber [ British ]
Cassidy Gifford
(1993-)
Actress [ American ]
Sophia Mitchell
(2000-)
Model, Instagram Star [ Irish ]
RadioJH Audrey
(2003-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Autumn Miller
(2001-)
Dancer, Actor, Model, YouTuber [ American ]
Rosalie van Breemen
(1966-)
Model & TV Presenter [ Dutch ]
Angela Magana
(1983-)
MMA [ American ]
Bernie Tiede
(1958-)
Murderer [ American ]
Kathryn Harrold
(1950-)
Actress [ American ]
Apollonia Kotero
(1959-)
Actress, Singer [ American ]
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
(1674-1723)
Regent [ French ]
Sandeep Lamichhane
(2000-)
Cricketer [ Nepalese ]
Eyal Booker
(1995-)
Model [ British ]
Kristaps Porzingis
(1995-)
Basketball Player [ Latvian ]
Mel Joy
(1999-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Darius Dobre
(1995-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Bahja Rodriguez
(1996-)
Hip Hop Singer, Songwriter [ American ]
Giancarlo Purch
(2000-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Jonas Blue
(1989-)
DJ [ British ]
Gary Merrill
(1915-1990)
Actor [ American ]
Joanna Cassidy
(1945-)
Actress [ American ]
Butch Patrick
(1953-)
Former Child Actor [ American ]
Jocqui Smollett
(1994-)
Actor [ American ]
Carroll O’Connor
(1924-2001)
Actor [ American ]
Jack L Warner
(1892-1978)
Film Executive [ Canadian ]
Hallie Eisenberg
(1992-)
Actress [ American ]
Lamar Hunt
(1932-2006)
Businessman [ American ]
Cynthia Stevenson
(1962-)
Actress [ American ]
Angus Imrie
(1994-)
Actor [ British ]


People Died This Day

Wallace Stevens
(1879-1955)
Poet [ American ]
Carlos Chavez
(1899-1978)
Composer, conductor [ Mexican ]
Alexander Graham Bell
(1847-1922)
Inventor of Telephone [ Scottish ]
Horace Mann
(1796-1859)
Educator & Politician [ American ]
Totie Fields
(1930-1978)
Comedian [ American ]
Warren G. Harding
(1865-1923)
President of the U.S [ American ]
William S. Burroughs
(1914-1997)
Novelist, Short Story Writer [ American ]
James Douglas
(1803-1877)
British colonial governor on Vancouver Island (now British Columbia) [ British ]
Holden Roberto
(1923-2007)
Angolan Independence Leader [ Angolan ]
Thomas Gainsborough
(1727-1788)
Landscape painter [ British ]
William II of England
(1056-1100)
King of England [ British ]
Wild Bill Hickok
(1837-1876)
Gunfighter [ American ]
Michel Debré
(1912-1996)
149th Prime Minister of France [ French ]
Baruj Benacerraf
(1920-2011)
Immunologist [ Venezuelan ]
Paul von Hindenburg
(1847-1934)
General, Second President of Weimar Republic [ German ]
Andrey Vlasov
(1901-1946)
General [ Russian ]
Henry III of France
(1551-1589)
King of France [ French ]
Fela Kuti
(1938-1997)
Multi-instrumentalist [ Nigerian ]
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
(1769-1849)
Ottoman Governor of Egypt [ Albanian ]
Ara Parseghian
(1923-2017)
American Football Player, Coach [ American ]
Thurman Munson
(1947-1979)
Baseball Player [ American ]
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