29th March In History

History for any country or rather individual is basically something that has been printed and hence is followed religiously by many. The result of us following history is inevitable in our formation or development, a spawning of prejudice that leads to our relationship with one another, sometimes healing the wounds, most often painting a crevice between countries and races. What is important, though we are left with no choice but to follow our past and learn from it, is to always reiterate and remember the statement Alexis de Tocqueville once exclaimed. He said, “History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies.” Today we look at events that occurred on March 29th, the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. From the event that fueled the first world war, the ratification of the reoccupation of Rhineland by Adolf Hitler, to the event that ended the war, the defeat of the German IV army by the Soviets. With regard to sports and entertainment, Muhammad Ali yet again retained his world Heavy weight title; Clint Eastwood won his first Oscar that very night to Beethoven making his debut way back in the 18th century. Take a look and tell us which event significantly changed the world.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 29th March



1430

Politics

The Ottoman Empire Captures The Byzantine City Of Thessalonica

The Ottoman Empire, under the rule of Sultan Murad II, marched into the Byzantine City of Thessalonica and took reign of it. Known as the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine city consisted of a powerful economic, cultural, and military force until the Ottoman Turks seized it.


1500

Politics

Cesare Borgia Is Given The Title Of Captain General And Gonfalonier

The illegitimate son of Rodrigo Borgia, who later came to be known as Pope Alexander VI, initially refused the offer to be appointed cardinal by his father but following his conquest in Romagna. He was then appointed the captain and the military leader or Gonfalonier of the Church by his father.


1632

Politics

Treaty Of Saint-Germain Is Signed

On March 29th the French and the British signed the Treaty of Saint-Germain to return New France under the French control after the English had seized it in 1629. The states named under the treaty were Quebec, Acadia and Cape Breton Island.


1673

Politics

The British Government Passes The Test Act

A test against religious freedom, the Parliament passed the act that states that all those receiving Holy Communion or practicing the catholic faith were barred from serving in public posts or jobs. The king of England, Charles II made no attempts to repeal the act.


1792

Politics

King Gustav III Of Sweden Dies 13-Days After Being Shot In The Back

While attending the masked ball at the Royal Opera House, Gustav III was shot in the lower back by conspirators who intended to thwart his attempt to suppress the insurrection. Though the shot did not kill him instantly, he died 13-days later of septicemia, during which he made peace with his political enemies. His last words were, “I feel sleepy, a few moments' rest would do me good"


1901

Politics

The First Federal Elections Is Held In Australia

Following the establishment of the Commonwealth, federal elections were held in Australia to form the first Parliament of Australia. A total of 75 House of Representative seats were up for grabs through the elections but no party won a majority, resulting in a coalition government.


1930

Politics

Heinrich Brüning Is Elected As Chancellor Of Germany

In the midst of the country facing its worst economic situation as a result of the Great Depression, and the formation of the ‘Great Coalition’ Brunning rose to become the German Reichskanzler of the Weimar Republic. The coalition was between the Social Democratic Party, the Catholic Centre Party and the liberalists Democratic Party and People's Party.


1936

Politics

Adolf Hitler Reoccupies And Remilitarizes In Rhineland

A move that defied the agreement made in the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler ordered his troops to illegally march into Rhineland and remilitarize. Greeted by the overwhelmed mass, Hitler wanted to capitalize on his decision and ordered a referendum, in which he received a majority of 99% of the German population agreeing with his decision.


1961

Politics

Twenty-Third Amendment To The United States Constitution Is Ratified

For the first time in American history, the twenty-third amendment to the United States made it possible for the citizens of District of Columbia, now known as Washington D.C, to cast their vote in the Presidential elections.


1461

Wars

Wars Of The Roses: Battle Of Towton

A game of thrones, the battle of Towton was fought during the War of Roses, which were the wars fought for the throne of England. In what was tagged as probably the ‘Bloodiest’ battle on English soil, claiming the lives of 28,000 soldiers on a snowy Palm Sunday. Yorkist Edward, Duke of York defeated Lancastrian King Henry VI to ascend the throne as King Edward IV.


1831

Wars

Great Bosnian Uprising: Bosnians Rebel Against The Turkey Government

With the Ottoman Empire implementing reforms to do away with the ayan system, the Bosnian ayans (Landlords) revolted against this reformation and waged war against the Turkish government. As a result of internal dispute, the Bosnians were defeated by the government.


1847

Wars

Mexican–American War: Siege Of Veracruz Ends

Lasting for 20-days of constant ambush and persuasion, the American troops on March 29 finally gained control of the Veracruz beach after the Mexican soldiers surrendered. The victory gave the Americans free passage into Mexico.


1857

Wars

The Sepoy Mutiny Initiates The Indian Rebellion Of 1857

In what was the first resistance against the British Rule in India, Sepoy Mangal Pandey shot Lieutenant Baugh when he was trying to douse the insurrection Pandey was trying to stir. Pandey was executed for his actions but his valiance to rise against the British inspired the nation to fight for independence.


1865

Wars

The Appomattox Campaign: The Last Hurdle Before The End Of The American Civil War

Compromising of a series of battles that started on March 29th, the battle resulted in the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant of the Union. As a consequence of the submission, 11-weeks later the American Civil War finally ended with the leaders of the Confederates either surrendering or fleeing.


1879

Wars

Anglo-Zulu War: Battle Of Kambula

In what was a decisive battle that eventually ended the Anglo-Zulu Wars, the Zulu army penetrated into the British camp at Kambula. The move proved ill for them as the well-prepared British overhauled the surprise attack and emerged victorious.


1941

Wars

World War II: The Battle Of Cape Matapan

After Mavis Batey, a cryptographer made a significant breakthrough by breaching into the Italian Naval Enigma. The British Royal Navy commanded by British Admiral Andrew Cunningham, and the Royal Australian Navy intercepted one battleship, six heavy and two light cruisers, plus destroyers belonging to the Italian Royal Navy and destroyed and sunk the fleets.


1945

Wars

World War II: The German 4th Army Is Almost Destroyed By The Soviet Red Army

In what was the final few weeks of World War II, the Soviets invaded the Heiligenbeil in East Prussia in eastern Germany and on this day –March 29th- destroyed the fourth and last German Army.


1973

Wars

The Last Of The United States Troops Withdraw From Vietnam

A couple of months after the Vietnam Peace Treaty was signed; on March 29th the United States withdrew the last of their troops including their prisoners of war from the region of Hanoi, Vietnam.


2002

Wars

Israeli Forces Launch “Operation Defensive Shield” Against The Palestinians

In retaliation to the terrorist suicide bombings carried out by the Palestinians on the day of the Passover, the Israeli forces launched their biggest military operation since the ‘1967 Six-Day War’ on the West Bank. The move was to combat future possible terrorist attacks.


1999

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The Chamoli Earthquake Of 1999

In the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, located in the north at the foothills of the Himalayas, on March 29th, an earthquake measuring a disastrous 6.9 on the Richter scale struck the Chamoli district. It resulted in the killing of 108 people and reduced the surrounding villages to dust.


2013

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Gyama Mine Landslide

On March 29th at 6:00 A.M local time, a landslide caused possibly due to excessive mining in the area swept 88 people under its debris, with the majority of the toll being mine workers. The mining was situated 70 km east of Lhasa at an altitude of 4600m. On April 5th, 66 bodies were recovered.


2013

Disasters & Natural Calamities

36 People Succumb Under The Rubble Of A Building Collapse In Tanzania

In the commercial capital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, a 16-floor building collapsed as the foundation gave way. The collapse caused a huge pileup and claimed the lives of 36 people and injuring many others.


1966

Sports

Muhammad Ali Retains His WBC World Heavyweight Title

Legendary boxer and voted the greatest athlete of the 20th century, Muhammad Ali defeated George Chuvalo in 15 rounds, a decision that was unanimous, at the Maple Leaf Garden in Toronto to retain his Championship belt.


1984

Sports

Baltimore Colts Relocate To Indianapolis

In a move that came as a shock to natives and fans, the Baltimore Colts shifted bases to Indianapolis in the prospect of playing in their new revamped stadium. This unofficial and unannounced relocation that was kept mum from the fans and was done with the help of fifteen Mayflower moving trucks in the wee hours of the morning.


1987

Sports

Hulk Hogan Retains His Title As World Wrestlemania Champion

In what was the culmination of Wrestlemania III, Hulk Hogan defended his title as the World wrestling champ by submitting Andre the Giant. The match lasted 11 minutes, 43 seconds in front of the cheers of 93,136 fans at the Silverdome in Pontiac, MI. With this win, Hogan became the world champ for the second time.


1998

Sports

Tennessee Woman's College Basketball Team Lifts The NCAA Women's Basketball Tournament With A Record

Winning their third consecutive championship in a row, the Tennessee woman's college basketball team triumphed 93–75 over Louisiana Tech by maintaining their record-breaking clean sheet of 39-0 through the tournament.


1999

Sports

New York Rangers Center Wayne Gretzky Becomes The Highest Scorer In Pro Hockey History

Scoring a goal that helped his team overhaul the Islanders 3-1, Gretzky reached a career milestone of 1,072 goals, surpassing Gordie Howe as the leading goal scorer in Pro Hockey history.


2014

Sports

The Philadelphia 76ers Snap Their NBA Record-Tying, 26-Game Losing Streak

In what was regarded as the new longest form dip in U.S. major pro sports history, the Philadelphia 76ers saved themselves from further embarrassment by thumping the Detroit Pistons 123-98. The win helped them avoid holding the world record of the longest losing streak.


1795

Literature & Entertainment

Beethoven Debuts In Vienna After Much Anticipation

A prodigy and one of the biggest influences to classical music, at the age of 24-years-old, Beethoven after much wait and anticipation from the people of Vienna, made his debut.


1993

Literature & Entertainment

Clint Eastwood Wins Two Academy Awards For The Movie “Unforgiven”

After decades of being one of the most sought-after actors in Hollywood, Eastwood won his first Oscar for best actor and doubled that tally the same night by winning best director for the movie Unforgiven.


1546

Trivia

Cardinal Beaton, English Archbishop Of St Andrews, Was Brutally Murdered

At dawn on March 29th, 1546, two men, Norman Leslie, master of Rothes, and William Kirkcaldy of Grange, marched into St. Andrews Castle and killed Cardinal Beaton for his dissent against the Protestants. The men mutilated Beaton and hung his body from the window of the castle.


1549

Trivia

The City Of Salvador Da Bahia, The First Capital Of Brazil, Is Founded

Now the third largest city in Brazil, the city of Salvador Da Bahia was founded by the Portuguese and now is a UNESCO site for its Portuguese styled colonies. The triangular bay on which Salvador sits was spotted by Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucc, who named it the Bay of the Holy Savior.


1683

Trivia

Yaoya Oshichi, 15-Year-Old Japanese Girl, Is Burnt Alive

The Japanese girl was burnt alive in public after she set fire to a building as a result of unrequited love for a priest who she met during one of Japan’s frequent summer wild fires. The girl was executed by being placed on a stake and burnt alive.


1806

Trivia

The Great National Pike Is Commissioned, Becoming The First United States Federal Highway

On March 29th, the National Highway or more popularly known as the Cumberland Road was commissioned for work to commence, thereby becoming the first national highway of the United States.


1848

Trivia

Niagara Falls Seizes Due To An Ice Jam

In what would be a moment that would be difficult to comprehend for those who have witnessed the extreme nature of the Niagara Falls, due to an ice blockage, a cluster of a million tons of ice lodged at the source. The Niagara Falls stopped flowing for thirty hours, after which the force of nature cracked the block and it resumed its gush.


1850

Trivia

200 People Die As Ireland’s Royal Adelaide SS Sinks

In what was regarded as one of the worst on-sea disasters of its time, a storm resulted in the sinking of Ireland’s Royal Adelaide’s Steam Ship, claiming the lives of 200 people.


1871

Trivia

Queen Victoria Opens The Royal Albert Hall

Now one of the most sought-after concert halls in the world which has featured numerous world renowned artists such as Pink Floyd and so on, history began in this hall on March 29th. Following a speech by Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Victoria opened the concert hall by drawing some resemblance of it to the British constitution during her opening speech.


1882

Trivia

The Knights Of Columbus Are Established

Named after the world renowned explorer and mariner Christopher Columbus, the Knights of Columbus were formed on March 29th, 1882. Tagged as the "strong right arm of the Church" by Late Pope John Paul II, the Knights of Columbus are currently the largest fraternal service organization in the world, advocating their service to charity, education and so on.


1886

Trivia

Dr. John Pemberton Brews The First Batch Of Coca-Cola In A Backyard In Atlanta

After the temperance act was passed in in Atlanta, which banned the consumption of alcohol, Pemberton had to look for a substitute for his French wine-cola. With the help of pharmacist Willis E. Venable, he began testing his drink and by mistake mixed carbonated water to the ingredients, a concoction that would eventually be known as Coca-Cola.


1903

Trivia

A Regular News Service Began Between New York And London On Marconi's Wireless

In the aftermath of Marconi’s revolutionary wireless invention that enabled long-distant communication, a new service began to float between New York and London.


1911

Trivia

The M1911 .45 ACP Pistol Becomes The Official U.S. Army Side Arm

A design that has transcended generations, so much so, that guns made today are just variants of this very design, the M1911 .45 ACP Pistol on March 29th, 1911, officially became the side arm of the U. S Army. This piston, which functions of the short coil principle, has sold more than 2.7 million pieces since its inception into the market.


1971

Trivia

Following The “My Lai Massacre”, Lieutenant William Calley Is Convicted

The ‘My Lai Massacre’ which was regarded as "the most shocking episode of the Vietnam War” was the killing of almost 504 unarmed Vietnamese civilians in South Vietnam. Though 26 other soldiers were equally guilty of the crime, only William Calley was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. The sentenced was later revoked by President Nixon and he was released from house arrest three years later.


1971

Trivia

A Los Angeles Jury Recommends The Death Penalty For Charles Manson And Three Female Followers

Charles Mason, the leader and founder of the Mason family were sentenced to death in accordance to the murdering of nine civilians carried out by Mason’s followers. Though he wasn’t present at the scene, he faced similar charges for conspiring the murders. His death sentence was revoked by the Supreme Court and was reduced to a life imprisonment.


1973

Trivia

Nasa's Mariner 10 Becomes The First Space Probe To Fly By Mercury

Launched on November 3, 1973 by NASA, the objective of the mission was to fly past the planets Mercury and Venus in order to analyze its environment, characteristics and surface. In total, the spacecraft flew past Mercury three times, but the first was on March 29th at 20:47 UT.


1979

Trivia

Former President John F Kennedy’s Murder Is Declared A Conspiracy

The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations, set up in 1976 to probe the murder of President John F. Kennedy, announced that his death was in fact the result of a conspiracy.


1983

Trivia

Erno Rubik Was Granted A Patent For His Magic Cube

The patent for Rubik’s cube, a 3D combination puzzle, was granted to founder Erno Rubik on March 29, 1983. It won German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle that year.


2004

Trivia

The Republic Of Ireland Becomes The First Country In The World To Ban Smoking In All Public Places

In what was a first to preserve the health of the citizens, Ireland banned smoking in all public places, including restaurants and bars. According to sources, the ban did not have an economic impact on the country but prevented an estimated smoking-related-death-toll of 3,700 deaths annually.


2010

Trivia

The Tokyo Skytree Becomes The Tallest Tower In Japan

Though not completed, on March 29th, 2010, the tower scaled a height of 338 m (1,109 ft.), thus becoming the tallest tower in Japan. Upon completion in March 2011, the structure scaled 6340 meters (2,080 ft.) making it the largest tower in the world.


2010

Trivia

Moscow Metro Bombings Claim The Lives Of 40 And Injure Around 100

At a time where almost 500,000 people were using the Metro system to commute, two women carried out suicide bombing attacks that were staged by the Militant Islamist, Caucasus Emirate group.


2014

Trivia

The First Same-Sex Marriages In England And Wales Are Performed

As a result of the revolutionary passage of the law regarding same-sex-marriages by the British Parliament, couples in England lined up on March 29th to exchange their vows and certify their nuptials.


People Born This Day

Sam Walton
(1918-1992)
Businessman [ American ]
William Walton
(1902-1983)
Composer [ British ]
John Tyler
(1790-1862)
[ American ]
Cy Young
(1867-1955)
[ American ]
Eric Idle
(1943-)
Comedian [ British ]
Amy Sedaris
(1961-)
[ American ]
Uuno Kailas
(1901-1933)
Poet [ Finnish ]
Eugene McCarthy
(1916-2005)
Politician [ American ]
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
(1941-)
Nobel Prize Winner in Physics [ American ]
John R. Vane
(1927-2004)
Pharmacologist [ British ]
Juanpa Zurita
(1996-)
Vine star, YouTube personality, social media personality and comedian. [ Mexican ]
Elle Macpherson
(1964-)
Model, Entrepreneur [ Australian ]
CJ so Cool
(1989-)
YouTube star [ American ]
Rylan McKnight
(2005-)
YouTube Personality [ American ]
Duhitzmark
(2001-)
Social Media Star [ American ]
Jill Goodacre
(1964-)
Model & Actress [ American ]
Brendan Gleeson
(1955-)
Actor [ Irish ]
Kim Tae-hee
(1980-)
South Korean actress [ South Korean ]


People Died This Day

Swedenborg
(1688-1772)
Scientist, Philosopher, Christian Mystic and Theologian [ Swedish ]
Carl Orff
(1895-1982)
Composer [ German ]
Carlo Urbani
(1956-2003)
Epidemiologist [ Italian ]
Charles Wesley
(1707-1788)
Poet [ British ]
Mitch Hedberg
(1968-2005)
Stand-up Comedian [ American ]
Slava Raškaj
(1877-1906)
Painter [ Croatian ]
Robert Falcon Scott
(1868-1912)
Explorer [ British ]
Emperor Wu of Han
(0156-0087)
Emperor of China [ Chinese ]
Johnnie Cochran
(1937-2005)
Lawyer [ American ]
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