12th September In History

September 12 is also known as the ‘Day After’ – the first day after the World Trade center was attacked by terrorists, killing hundreds of civilians and changing the topography of Manhattan. The turn of the 21st century was welcomed ominously with violence. To commemorate this day, a museum was opened on this day 10 years after the event so that relatives of the victims could pay tribute to their loved ones. It was also on the 12th of September that Adolf Hitler joined the German Workers Party that later on went to become the Nazi Party. It changed the history of Germany and the world in the coming years. This day was important to Germany 50 years later, too, when the treaty was signed, unifying the country for the first time after the Second World War had torn it apart. Check out all the important events that happened on 12 September in human history.




Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos Brutally Put To Death In Constantinople

Emperor Andronikos I was emperor of Constantinople from 1183 – 1185 till his death. During these two years, his reign signified terror and violence for the nobles and the common man. On September 11, 1185, his commander was killed while arresting a noble, Issac Angelos whose loyalty was suspect. Issac took refuge in the church of Hagia Sophia and appealed to the population to rise in revolt against Andronikos. As a result, people revolted against Andronikos and Andronikos was brutally killed by his subjects on September 12, 1185.



Switzerland Becomes A Federal State

Switzerland became a federal state on September 12, 1848 with fifteen and a half cantons voting in favour of it. It was to be governed by a national government (the Federal Council) and a national parliament (the Federal Assembly). The Federation was mainly responsible for foreign policy, the army, the currency, the postal services and the toll system.



The City Of Salisbury Is Founded

Salisbury, now known as Harare and the capital of Zimbabwe, was founded on this day in 1890 by Cecil Rhodes and the British South African Company. The settlement was known as Fort Salisbury at that time and later became the capital of both South and North Rhodesia. The fort began as a settlement when Major Frank Johnson invaded Shona territory and seized the land from them and other indigenous tribes living on it.



Adolf Hitler Joins The German Workers' Party (Later The Nazi Party)

Corporal Adolf Hitler was ordered to investigate the German Workers Party in September 1919. On September 12, he attended his first meeting of the party at the back-room of a Munich beer hall in civilian clothes. He attended the meeting and verbally disagreed with the speaker of the meeting at the end. One of the founders of the party was impressed after hearing his arguments and decided to invite him to join the party. This initiated his political career and the anti-Semitic sentiments instilled in him from his Viennese days as a youngster found an expression.



Southern Rhodesia Annexed By The United Kingdom

The European settlers wanted self-governance of their own colony instead of becoming a part of the British Union of South Africa. The European settlement in Southern Rhodesia voted with a majority in favor of self-governance and hence, on 12 September 1923, Rhodesia was annexed to the crown and became a self-governing colony. The British government retained control of external affairs and veto powers for legislation that would directly affect Africans.



Adolf Hitler Demands Autonomy For The Germans Of The Sudetenland Region In Czechoslovakia

Sudentland was a part of Germany but was ceded to Czechoslovakia after World War I. Adolf Hitler, in a speech on September 12, 1938, stated that the Czechoslovakian government must give the Germans in Sudetenland autonomy as they did not treat them fairly. This created political unrest resulting in martial law to be imposed by the Czech. British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain met Hitler during the Munich Conference in an attempt to bring peace.



Nikita Khrushchev Elected Premiere Of Soviet Union

After the death of Stalin in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev was elected as First Secretary of the Communist Party on 12 September 1953. He later on became Premier and also held his former position of first secretary, thus gaining complete control of the USSR. He had a mostly pro-western outlook and the Cold War thawed a little during the early years of his administration.



The African And Malagasy Union Founded

The African and Malagasy Union was founded on 12th September 1961 by 12 African countries that were previously French colonies. The aim of the union was to promote economic, cultural and defense co-operation besides having a special relationship with France. This created problems as they had to depend on France and also because they each had different post-colonial problems besides being very diverse culturally. This organization became officially extinct in 1985.



Emperor Haile Selassie Of Ethiopia Is Deposed Following A Military Coup

Emperor Haile Selassie was hailed as the architect of modern Ethiopia. In his later years, he revised the constitution but retained the ultimate power in the country. Eventually, Ethiopia suffered economically and the very military he had empowered, formed mutinous group, the Derg, who deposed him. On 12th September 1974, Emperor Hailee Selassie was escorted to prison by the Derg, ending a reign of 58 years.



South African Anti-Apartheid Activist Steve Biko Dies In Police Custody

South African anti-apartheid activist, Steve Biko was arrested on August 18, 1977 under the Terrorist Act and died in police custody on September 12, 1977. He was the 20th person to die after being arrested under this Act. His death sparked angry riots in South Africa.



Military Coup In Turkey

On this day in 1980, Turkish army under the leadership of General Evren carried out a coup. Before the coup, the country was in a chaos and was without an elected president. The coup was generally welcomed by the public because it brought order to the nation.



The Treaty On The Final Settlement With Respect To Germany Signed In Moscow

The treat of Final Settlement with respect to Germany was signed on 12 September 1990 in Moscow and paved the way for the reunification of Germany after the World War II. The Four Powers – The Great Britain, Soviet Union, France and United States relinquished their rights with respect to Germany so that the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) could unify.



U.S Declares War On Terror After 9/11 Attack

The day after the 9/11 terror attacks, President George W Bush said in a speech to the nation that America will not tolerate terrorism. Later, the US Government declared war on terror. US attacked Afghanistan a month later.



The First Siege Of Gibraltar Ends; Moors Surrender To Ferdinand IV

The first siege of Gibraltar ended on 12 September 1309 with the surrender of the Moors after being besieged for one month. The Castilian forces allowed 1,125 Moors to leave the city unharmed. This ended almost 600 years of the Moors’ rule in Gibraltar.



Austro-Ottoman War: Battle Of Vienna Ends

On 12 September 1683, the 2-day battle that began on 11 September against the Ottoman invaders ended. The Battle of Vienna was fought by several European armies including the Polish and the Austrian forces to defeat the Ottoman Empire and protect the Catholic stronghold. Friar Mark was also in the battle and is famously said to have brandished his cross at the oncoming Turks. This battle was decisive in establishing Catholic power in most of continental Europe.



Continental Congress Receives News Of Patriot Defeat At Brandywine

On September 11, 1777, Continental General George Washington was outnumbered and defeated by the British forces in Brandywine, Pennsylvania. On receiving the news of the defeat, the Congress sent word to their representatives in New York, Maryland, New Jersey and Pennsylvania asking them to send reinforcements to Washington in Brandywine. Despite this, the Americans lost to the British who marched victorious in to Pennsylvania.



The Siege Of Lexington, Missouri, Begins

The First Battle of Lexington was fought during the American Civil War between the Union Army and the pro-Confederate Missouri State Guard. The battle was fought from September 12 to September 20, 1861 and is also known as the Seige of Lexington. The pro-Confederate Missouri State Guard emerged victorious in the battle.



U.S Launches Saint-Mihiel Offensive

On this day, the American Expeditionary Forces under the command of General Pershing launched the U. S’s major offensive in Europe as an independent army. The attack occurred at the Saint-Mihiel salient in France. This was a strategic location that was occupied by the Germans who blocked rail traffic between Paris and eastern sections of the front. The American offensive forced the German army decided to abandon the salient.



RMS Laconia Is Torpedoed Off The Coast Of West Africa

On this day, RMS Laconia, a British troopship, was carrying civilians, Polish soldiers and Italian POWs to Britain via West African coast when a German U-boat U-156 torpedoed the ship. Operating partly under the dictates of the old prize rules, the U-boat commander immediately commenced rescue operations, broadcasting their humanitarian intent to all Allied forces in the area. and was joined by all U-boats in the vicinity. American bombers deliberately bombed U-156 and the rescue mission proved disastrous to both the survivors and the Germans. This event forced the German navy to forbid such acts of kindness to get an upper edge in the war.



Benito Mussolini, Dictator Of Italy, Is Rescued From House Arrest

On 25 July 1943, Mussolini was dismissed and put under house arrest by the king, Victor Emmanuel III. Mussolini requested to Hitler for help who sent German commandos to rescue him. On the afternoon of 12 September 1943, the commandos led by Otto Skorzeny daringly rescued him from a ski resort on the mountains of Gran Sasso in Abruzzi. He was later put in charge of the German’s puppet regime in Italy.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

Explosion At The Hercules Powder Company In New Jersey

On the morning of 12 September 1940, an explosion rocked the Hercules Powder Company in Kenville, New Jersey, killing 51 and injuring 200. The explosion was so intense that it shattered windows of a school 5 miles away and was felt for more than 10 miles around. The cause of this explosion is unknown; some think it may not have been accidental but may have been sabotage by Nazi spies.


Disasters & Natural Calamities

Hurricane Gilbert Rocks Jamaica

On this day in 1988, Hurricane Gilbert rocked Jamaica, killing 45 people and leaving behind damages worth billions of dollars. It made a landfall in Jamaica at 9:00 a.m in the morning and ravaged the island with winds of nearly 130 mph destroying all in its path and devastating the island. The hurricane passed onto the Grand Cayman and then dissipated off the north east of Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula



Arbroath FC Scores A Record 36–0 Win Against Bon Accord In Professional Football

Arbroath was a well-established team that scored a record 36-0 win against the newly formed Bon Accord team during the Scottish Cup on 12th September 1885. The Bon Accord team was no match for the experienced players of the Arbroath team.



Sugar Ray Robinson Wins Back Belt

On September 12 1951, Sugar Ray Robinson defeated Randy Turpin to win back the belt. The New York boxer had lost his belt to the British Turpin two months back in Europe. He requested a rematch and on this day, his request was granted and the match was held at Polo Grounds in the U.S where he won his title back after an intense 10 round boxing match. He was considered the best pound-for-pound fighter in boxing history and was inducted in the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1967.



Dwight Gooden Sets The Baseball Record For Strikeouts

On 12th September 1984, 19 year old Dwight Gooden set a new rookie record previously set by Herb Score in 1954. Gooden's 16 total and 276 strikeouts pitched in 218 innings, set the current record and broke Herb’s 246 strikeouts. The Mets rookie was admitted into New York Mets Hall of fame the next year and continued stellar performances during his 16 year career.



England Win The Ashes Cup After 24 Years

England beat Australia in the Ashes Cup for the first time since 1987. The final match was a draw and the final result of the series was a 2-1 in favor of England. The Queen and Prime Minister Tony Blair congratulated the captain Michael Vaughan for the fine performance in the Ashes. Later, they were invited to 10 Downing Street to meet the Prime Minister.


Literature & Entertainment

Elizabeth Barrett Elopes With Robert Browning

Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett were two romantic poets, though Barrett was more critically acclaimed of the two. When Barrett defended Browning’s poetry, he requested to meet her. The reclusive poetess agreed and soon they fell in love despite her father’s disapproval. On 12th September 1846, Elizabeth and Robert sneaked out of home and eloped to get married in St. Marleybourne Parish Church and moved to Italy.


Literature & Entertainment

Mahler's ‘Symphony Of A Thousand’ Premieres In Munich

On 12th September 1910, Gustav Mahler conducted the premiere of Symphony 8, which was his own composition. The premiere in Munich had a chorus of 850 and an orchestra of 171 musicians and lasted for 90 minutes. This made Mahler’s agent dub it as a ‘Symphony of a Thousand’, and this apt name stuck though the composer disapproved.



Newport Transporter Opens At Newport

Robert Haynes suggested the transporter bridge as the most economical and safe way to cross the unreliable river Usk that was causing too many accidents. Work for the bridge began in 1902 and it cost £98,000 to complete and the Newport transporter bridge was opened on September 12th 1906 by Viscount Tredgar. It is one of the 8 remaining bridges left of the 20 that were initially built world over.



Leó Szilárd Conceives The Idea Of The Nuclear Chain Reaction

Leo Szilard was a Hungarian-American physicist and inventor who pioneered work in nuclear physics. Sir Rutherford stated it was impossible to obtain power from transformation of atoms. This led to an epiphany as Leo waited at a signal on Southampton Row and conceived the idea of a nuclear chain reaction on September 12 1933. He was the first to realize an atom bomb can be created as a consequence.



Strange Occurrences Take Place In West Virginia

On 12th September 1952, a few school boys spotted a UFO streak past and land on a nearby hilltop in Flatwoods, Virginia. On closer inspection, they encountered a nauseating mist, shiny red light and saw a pair of shining eyes on a huge creature that hissed and glided at them. They ran in panic and the next day investigators discovered skid marks and an oil-like substance that presumably came from the UFO. This gave rise to the sightings of strange creatures including monsters, nicknamed ‘Flatwood Monsters’.



John Fitzgerald Kennedy Marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier

John Fitzgerald Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvierat St. Mary's Church in Newport, Rhode Island on September 12 1953. Around 750 people attended the wedding and more than 3,000 onlookers waited for a glimpse of the newlyweds as a motorcade took them to the venue of their wedding reception at Hammersmith Farm.



Jack Kilby Demonstrates The First Integrated Circuit

Jack Kilby first demonstrated the integrated circuit on 12 September 1958 to his team at Texas Instruments. He had built a fully integrated circuit using a sliver of geranium with protruding wires glued to a glass slide. Its impact was not felt at that time, but later it went on to become a part of every modern electrical invention and was used in every field from defense to medicine and everything in between.



Premiere Of Bonanza, The First Regularly Scheduled TV Program Presented In Color

The TV show Bonanza revolutionized television production in the mid-20th century. It was the first color television serial to be premiered in the history of color television. This popular show was first shown on T.V on September 12th 1959 and the western ran for 14 seasons and ranks as the second most longest running western in history.



Soviet Union Launches Luna 2, The First Spacecraft To Successfully Reach The Moon

The Soviets launched Luna 2, the second rocket to the moon on this day in 1959. This second attempt of the Russians was successful as the Luna 2 landed on the moon 36 hours after its launch. It carried equipment to measure magnetic fields of the Earth and Moon and also the levels of radiation around the Earth.



John F. Kennedy Delivers "We Choose To Go To The Moon" Speech

Three years after the Russians launched Luna 2, American President John F. Kennedy announced that America will send a man to space in the sixties. He noted that since this was a hazardous adventure in unknown territory, it will take time, money and effort. He also thanked his audience at Rice University, Houston, for their involvement in this national endeavor.



Canyonlands National Park Designated As A National Park

Canyonlands National Park was established on September 12 1964 to preserve the extra-ordinary scenic beauty and for use by the public. Canyonlands National Park is carved out of sedimentary rocks and is one of the last relatively undisturbed areas of the Colorado Plateau and has an arid landscape with stunning river gorges and unique desert landscape.



Gemini XI, The Ninth Manned Mission Of Project Gemini, Takes Off

Gemini XI was the ninth manned space ship that was launched by NASA at 9:24 a.m. on September 12 1966 from Florida. This ship was manned by Richard Gordon and Charles Conrad. This flight remains noteworthy as it achieved the highest altitude in orbit ever recorded by a manned flight by reaching a height of 1371 miles above Earth (except for the Apollo lunar missions).



NASA Launches Endeavour STS-47, The Second Mission Of Space Shuttle Endeavour

NASA launched STS-47 Space lab mission on space shuttle Endeavor on 12th September 1992. This mission was unique as it had many firsts in its crew. Mae Carol Jemison was the first African-American woman while Mamoru Mohri was the first Japanese to fly in a US spaceship and Mark Lee & Jan Davis were the first married couple in space. Dr. Jemison was a science mission specialist on an 8-day joint mission with the Japanese that included 20 life sciences and 24 material sciences experiments.



New Floating Bridge Opens In Seattle

The Lacey V. Murrow Bridge stretching 6,500-feet across Lake Washington connects Boston and Seattle, closing the last major gaps in the interstate system. It was built to replace the previous bridge which was destroyed by a flood in 1990 when it was undergoing repair and reconstruction.



Frank Eugene Corder Crashes A Cessna 150 Onto The White House's South Lawn

An American driver Frank Corder crashed a single engine Cessna 150 on the White House lawn during the early hours of September 12, 1994. No one except Corder was killed in the incident. Corder had lost his trucking business and his marriage of 10 years had failed. He was familiar with planes and this was an alleged suicidal attempt as he could not cope with his life anymore.



Hong Kong Disneyland Opens In Penny’s Bay

Disney’s first ever vacation spot in China was openedon September 12 2005 in Hong Kong’s Lantau Island. Celebrating the lavish opening of Disney’s theme park were Zeng Qinghong, vice president of China; Michael Eisner, CEO of Walt Disney Company and Robert Iger, president, COO and CEO-elect of Walt Disney. Not everyone was happy on that day as protestors demonstrated over the alleged abuse of Chinese workers at factories supplying merchandise.



Chatsworth Train Collision In Los Angeles Kills 25 People

A Metrolink commuter train plowed into a freight train killing 25 and injuring 135 people at 4:22 p.m. on September 12 2008. The accident was caused due to the negligence on the part of the train driver - also one of the victims – who was texting and so skipped a red light. Following this, California authorities temporarily banned railway workers from using cell phones on duty.



The 9/11 Memorial Museum In New York City Opens To The Public

The 9/11 Memorial Museum was opened to the public on 12th September 2011, ten years and a day after the World Trade Center was hit by terrorists. 2,983 men, women and children had perished in the attack bringing down the towers and changing the topography of the Manhattan skyline forever. This museum presents monumental artifacts linked to the events of 9/11 and also presents stories of compassion, loss, reckoning and recovery.



Palestinian Terrorists Blow Up Three Hijacked Airliners In Jordan

On September 12th 1970, terrorists belonging to the Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine burnt 3 planes that they had hijacked from various locations at Dawson Airfield in Jordan. All except 40, whom they claimed were part of the Israeli army, were released. These were also eventually freed as all the demands of the terrorists were met. This was one of the causes of the Jordanian Civil war.



Los Macheteros Conducts White Eagle Robbery At Wells Fargo Depot

Los Macheteros, a guerrilla group seeking Puerto Rican independence from the US conducted robbery at a Wells Fargo depot on September 12, 1983 at West Hartford, Connecticut. A former guard, Victor Gerena, who had been working for a year drugged his co-workers and robbed a Wells Fargo depot of $7 million in cash.



Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada Is Convicted Of Plunder

The ex-president of Philippines, Joseph Estrada was accused of plunder and sentenced to imprisonment for life on 12th September 2007. Estrada was ousted from office in 2001 by an army backed revolt and was replaced by his then vice-president. He was found guilty on two counts – receiving payoff from illegal gambling and taking commissions in the sale of shares of government pension funds.



Oscar Pistorius Found Guilty Of Culpable Homicide Of His Girlfriend, Reeva Steenkamp

Oscar Pistorius, a South African paralympian, was found guilty of culpable homicide and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment for killing his girlfriend of 3 months, Reeva Steenkamp on 14th February 2013. He claims that on the night of the incident, he thought he was shooting at an intruder in the bathroom, not realizing that it was Reeva inside.


Inventions & Discoveries

Cave Paintings Discovered In Lascaux, France

Lascaux in Southern France has been home to many caves with beautiful and intricate pre-historic paintings. On 12th September 1940, 4 teenagers stumbled upon a cave with such ancient and beautiful artwork while chasing their dog through narrow tunnels. These paintings were first studied by French archaeologist Henri-Édouard-Prosper Breuil. The paintings in the 15,000 – 17,000 year old caves are said to be from the Upper Paleolithic period.

People Born This Day

Ben Folds
Singer-Songwriter, Musician & Composer Who was the Frontman and Pianist of the Alternative Rock Trio 'Ben Folds Five' [ American ]
H. L. Mencken
One of the Greatest and Most Influential American Literary Critic in the 1920s [ American ]
Jesse Owens
American Track and Field Athlete Who Won Four Gold Medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympics [ American ]
Paul Walker
Best Known for His Role as 'Brian O'Conner' in the 'Fast & Furious' Franchise [ American ]
Emmy Rossum
Actress, Singer [ American ]
Yao Ming
6th President of the Chinese Basketball Association and Former Professional Player [ Chinese ]
Barry White
Singer-songwriter [ American ]
Neil Peart
Best Known as the Drummer and Primary Lyricist of the Rock Band 'Rush' [ Canadian ]
Helen Carter
Singer-Songwriter [ American ]
Scott Brown
Former United States Senator from Massachusetts [ American ]
Louis C.K.
One of the Best Stand-up Comics of All Time [ American ]
Michael Ondaatje
Canada's Most Renowned Living Authors [ Canadian ]
Irène Joliot-Curie
French Physicist, Politician and Winner of the 1935 Nobel Prize in Chemistry [ French ]
Connor Franta
YouTube Star, Writer and Entrepreneur [ American ]
Yulema Ramirez
Mexican-American Social Media Personality and Musical Artist [ American ]
Francis I of France
Former King of France (1515 – 1547) [ French ]
Hans Zimmer
Film Score Composer and Music Producer Known for His Work in the Films: ‘The Lion King’ and ‘Dune’ [ German ]
Feroze Gandhi
Political Leader [ Indian ]
Yang Mi
Chinese Actress and Singer [ Chinese ]
Andrew Luck
Former American Football Player Who Played as a Quarterback [ American ]
2 Chainz
Rapper Best Known for His Single ‘Duffle Bag Boy’ [ American ]
Richard Thaler
Nobel Prize Winner in Economics (2017) [ American ]
Jennifer Hudson
Singer & Actress Known for Her Role in the Musical 'Dreamgirls' [ American ]
Ruben Studdard
Singer [ American ]
Desmond Llewelyn
Welsh Actor Best Known for His Role as ‘Q’ in James Bond Films [ Welsh ]
Joe Pantoliano
Character Actor [ American ]
Sophie Colquhoun
Actress [ British ]
RM (Rap Monster)
Leader of the South Korean Boy Group 'BTS' [ South Korean ]
Kroy Biermann
American Former Football Outside Linebacker [ American ]
Michel Qissi
Belgian Moroccan Actor Best Known for His Role as ‘Tong Po’ in the Film ‘Kickboxer’ [ Moroccan ]
Jessica Seinfeld
Cookbook Author, Wife of Jerry Seinfeld [ Filipino ]
American YouTube Star [ American ]
Kelsea Ballerini
Country Pop Singer Known for Her Single 'Love Me Like You Mean It' [ American ]
Ryan Potter
Actor [ American ]
Sydney Sweeney
Actress [ American ]
Elijah Stevenson
Actor [ American ]
American Singer and Rapper [ American ]
Colin Ford
Actor [ American ]
Patty Walters
American Pop Singer [ American ]
Laine Hardy
American Singer [ American ]
Franco Amurri
Director Best Known for His Films: ‘Da Grande’, ‘Monkey Trouble’ and ‘Flashback’ [ Italian ]
Amy Yasbeck
Best Known for Her Role as ‘Casey Chappel Davenport’ in the TV Series ‘Wings’ [ American ]
Lena Gieseke
Tim Burton's Wife [ German ]
Rachel Ward
Actress and Director [ Australian ]
Alexia Fast
Canadian Actress [ Canadian ]
Freddie Jones
Actor [ British ]
Pierre Boo
French TikTok Star [ French ]
Aiden Ricklef
TikTok Star [ American ]
Aidan Williams
TikTok Star [ American ]
TikTok Star [ American ]
Britney GnB
TikTok Star [ American ]
Comedic Genius, Viral Sketches, Hilarious Social Commentary. [ American ]
Alexa Adams
American Instagram Star [ American ]
Justin Ladner
American TikToker [ American ]
Caitlin Reilly
American TikToker [ American ]
Priscilla Lopez
American TikToker [ American ]
Gabi Palooza
American YouTuber [ American ]
Aaron Esser
Canadian YouTuber [ Canadian ]
Canadian YouTuber [ Canadian ]
Lord Lamya
Canadian Instagrammer [ Canadian ]
Colton Macaulay
Canadian TikToker [ Canadian ]
American YouTuber [ American ]

People Died This Day

Jean-Philippe Rameau
Music composer and theorist [ French ]
Johnny Cash
One of the Best-Selling Music Artists of All Time [ American ]
Norman Borlaug
American Agronomist and Winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1970 [ American ]
David Foster Wallace
Writer [ American ]
Ian Paisley
Politician [ Irish ]
Sergiusz Piasecki
Writer [ Polish ]
Peter Mark Roget
Lexicographer [ British ]
Robert Lowell
Poet [ American ]
Marjorie Merriweather Post
Socialite [ American ]
Steve Biko
South African Anti-Apartheid Activist. [ South African ]
Brandon Ashur
American YouTuber [ American ]
Donald Sinden
Actor [ British ]
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