8th June In History

Women empowerment has been stressed upon a lot in the last few decades. A look into the past tells us about two major events that boosted the image of women. On 8th June 1929, the U.K got its first female minister while another woman became the first to sail the world alone and create a new world record in 1978. Their (‘her’) story surely inspires and encourages women of the present times. In the U.S political circles, the day is remembered for key legislations like the Antiquities Bill and the Rights bill. This day also saw major developments during the World War II and devastating natural disasters. Even as New Zealand marked nuke free zones in the country, China conducted a nuke test and announced that it will hold another experiment. One of the best-selling novels in the world, ‘1984’ by George Orwell got published on this day and ‘Texaco Star Theater’ series reached television viewers across the U.S for the first time. Mankind moved towards a more equal world when on this day the American Supreme Court ordered restaurants to serve Black persons as well and Australia legalized Homosexuality. Other prominent developments include Tony Blair winning the Parliamentary elections for the second time and ‘Clones Cyclone’ clinching the featherweight title.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 8th June



793

Politics

Vikings Attack Abbey In England

The Vikings who belonged to the Scandinavian seafaring warriors attacked the Abbey (Christian monastery) at Lindisfarne, located in the English kingdom of Northumbria. This event is believed to have started the invasion of England by Scandinavians. The Vikings burnt down buildings, stole precious possessions and even killed several monks.


1042

Politics

Edward The Confessor Becomes The King Of England

Edward, the son of King Ethelred II and Emma, became the king of England in 1042 and ruled till 1066. He was given the sobriquet of Saint Edward the Confessor for his piousness. After his father’s death in 1016, the Danes took over England and Edward went into exile and stayed in Normandy, France till 1041. Among the Anglo-Saxon kings of England, King Edward was the penultimate.


1191

Politics

Richard I Arrives In Palestine

King Richard I of England entered Acre in Palestine in June 1191 to reclaim the port city. The Muslim city was then controlled by the renowned ruler Saladin. Richard I along with King Philip II of France began the Third Crusade against the Muslim ruler to conquer the Holy city of Jerusalem, but failed.


1789

Politics

Madison Introduces Amendments To The Bill Of Rights

Renowned political leader James Madison proposed twelve amendments to the United States’ Constitution as an elected member of the House of Representatives. The amendments were brought in to strengthen fundamental rights like freedom of speech and religion in the U.S Bill of Rights. Madison is called the Father of the Constitution because of his immense contribution in its creation.


1861

Politics

Tennessee Decides To Secede From The Union

The separation of the State of Tennessee from the Union government in America was approved on June 8, 1861. With this announcement, Tennessee formally became the last state to dissociate itself from the Union. Slaveholding was legal in Tennessee, so it joined hands with the Confederacy’s military forces to fight the Union. Secession by 11 such states led to the American Civil War.


1867

Politics

Franz Joseph Crowned The King Of Hungary

On June 8, 1867, Franz Joseph I was pronounced the King of Hungary in Buda. The event happened after the Austro-Hungarian compromise (Ausgleich), which permitted a Dual Monarchy System, came into existence. As per this system, both Austria and Hungary had an equal say in the political affairs of both nations.


1906

Politics

Roosevelt Signs Antiquities Bill

Former American President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Antiquities Bill on this day. As per the law, ancient structures and sites of historical or conservational importance were protected from destruction and looting. Another name for the Act is the ‘Lacey Act’.


1929

Politics

Britain Gets First Woman Minister

Margaret Bondfield, a trade union leader, became the first female minister in the United Kingdom on June 8th. Bondfield served as the Minister of Labor during Prime Minister James Ramsey MacDonald’s second tenure.


1945

Politics

Classified WWII Information Made Public

Scientific information pertaining to confidential World War II documents was made public by former American President Harry Truman through Executive Order 9568. Truman felt that such information could immensely benefit industries based in the U.S. This move disclosed extremely sensitive material related to World War II weapons, along with technical data.


1982

Politics

Reagan First To Address British Parliament

Roland Reagan, the 40th President of the United States of America, became the first to address a joint sitting of the British Parliament, on June 8. This was one of the highlights of his 1982 visit to the United Kingdom.


2001

Politics

Tony Blair Wins Second Term

Labor Party leader Tony Blair won the Parliamentary elections in Britain for the second time on June 8. Blair’s second tenure made him the longest-serving Labor premier and also the second longest continuous term holder, after Margaret Thatcher, in over 150 years. Blair was also the youngest prime minister since 1812.


1987

Politics

New Zealand Forms Nuke-Free Zone

The Labor government in New Zealand identified areas in the nation which were free from nuclear armaments and activity under the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act, 1987. The areas included land, inland and internal waterways, territorial sea, and airspace too. It barred acquisition, stationing, testing of nuclear explosive devices and biological weapons, in the nuke-free zone.


2002

Politics

Bush And Mubarak Meet At Camp David

In 2002, former U.S President George W Bush and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak held a meeting at Camp David, US president’s country retreat, to talk about political issues plaguing Palestine. The two Presidents were unable to resolve issues regarding a timeline for the formation of the State of Palestine.


1776

Wars

U.S Patriot Forces Lose To Canadians

Canadian forces guided by Governor Sir Guy Carleton trounced American Patriot forces, led by John Sullivan, when they were retreating from Quebec to Montreal. This battle was known as Trois-Rivières and it was aimed at pushing Americans out of the southern Quebec province of Canada.


1862

Wars

Confederates Win At Battle Of Cross Keys

On June 8, a Union military force led by John C. Fremont advanced on one of the Confederates’ General Richard .C. Ewell, but Fremont’s troops fought badly and failed to weaken the Confederates. Confederate military leader Stonewall Jackson had sent General Richard C. Ewell along with 5,000 men to Cross Keys to resist the Union attack.


1928

Wars

Chinese Army Takes Control Over Peking

The Chinese nationalist army launched a campaign called Second Northern Expedition (1926–27) against the warlords. Once the warlords lost the battle, the nationalist army fought against the British, its arch rival. Russian advisers and the arms provided by them helped in taking control of Chinese territories and unify the country. The Chinese army allied with the communists, but they split when the British decided to defend Shanghai. When the Army took control of Peking, it was renamed Beijing, which translated to ‘Northern Capital’.


1941

Wars

Allies Invade Syria And Lebanon

‘Operation Exporter’ was the invasion of Syria and Lebanon by the Allied forces comprising of British, Australian, Free French and other forces in 1941. Syria was earlier a part of the Ottoman Empire, but joined hands with the ‘Vichy France’ government. The Allies thought that many would leave the Vichy forces and join the Free French, but they were proven wrong.


1942

Wars

Japanese Submarines Attack Australian Cities

During World War II, the Sydney harbor was shelled by the Japanese submarine I-24 but only Bellevue Hill faced the wrath. Another submarine, I-21, hit the Australian city of Newcastle. The attack aimed at Australian shipyards, damaged a few commercial and residential buildings as well.


1944

Wars

British And American Troops Meet At Normandy

During World War II, U.S. General Omar Bradley brought together American troops as well as British troops at Colleville-sur-Mer in Normandy, France, on June 8. On observing this development, former Russian Prime Minister Joseph Stalin sent a telegraph to his British counterpart Winston Churchill to express his joy. General Bradley, a WW II hero, was the last general to be awarded five stars in America.


1967

Wars

Israel Attacks U.S Spy Ship

The American spy ship ‘USS Liberty’ was attacked by Israeli fighter planes when it was stationed in the Mediterranean Sea, on 8th June, 1967. Being poorly armed, the vessel could not defend itself well and lost 34 of its men, while 171 others were injured. These air strikes by Israel came to be known as the ‘Six-Day War’. Israel said it had mistaken the USS for an Egyptian ship and offered a compensation of $6.9 million along with an apology.


1969

Wars

U.S And Vietnam Presidents Meet To Discuss Vietnam War

The first meeting to discuss the withdrawal of U.S troops from the war-torn Vietnam was held at Midway Islands in the Pacific Ocean. During the meeting, former U.S President Richard Nixon and Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu agreed that 25000 troops would be withdrawn and South Vietnamese forces would take over from American forces. The ‘Vietnamization’ policy to strengthen Vietnam’s armed forces was also talked about in this meeting.


1972

Wars

Young Girl Gets Burnt During Vietnam War

During the Vietnam War, the use of ‘Napalm’ (chemical bomb) burnt a nine-year-old girl named Phan Thị Kim Phúc, who then ran naked for cover. When the girl ran in horror and pain, the moment was captured by the ‘Associated Press’ photographer Nick Ut. The photograph showed Phúc in the center quite conspicuously along with other dressed children. The picture became a spectacle of the misery inflicted by the war and went on to win the Pulitzer Prize


1982

Wars

Bluff Cove Air Attacks Take Place

When the Falkland Islands War took place, about fifty-six British military personnel and sailors were killed by Argentina’s naval air force at Bluff Cove. The air strikes were carried out on two supply ships – ‘RFA (Royal Fleet Auxiliary) Sir Galahad’ and ‘RFA Sir Tristram’ - which were anchored near Bluff Cove. The war was fought between Argentina and Britain to gain control over the Falkland Islands.


1783

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Famine In Iceland As Laki Erupts

Iceland saw a severe seven-year famine after volcanic fissure Laki erupted in its southern part. More than 9000 lives were lost during its eight-month-long eruption period. Besides, the fissure spewed loads of hazardous gases and ash causing haze over other countries as well. About a fifth of Iceland's population was wiped out, crops destroyed and cattle also died as a result of the haze and famine.


1953

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Tornado Hits Michigan

A tornado measuring F5 wreaked havoc in Michigan, in 1953 and most of its victims were people belonging to the Beecher community. The tornado, rated as one of the worst, claimed 116 lives and damaged around 350 homes.


1966

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Kansas Ravaged By Tornado

The ‘Topeka Tornado’ hit the capital city of Kansas, Topeka, in the United States of America, on this fateful day. This horrific disaster is considered one of the worst in terms of loss of life and property in Kansas history. The disaster measured F5 on the Fujita Intensity Scale and took seventeen lives. Including the inflationary costs, the loss is estimated to be around 1.8 Billion dollars, which is one of the highest to be recorded.


2001

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Tropical Storm Inundates Houston

On 8th June 2001, the Houston metropolis in Texas State was jolted by a Tropical Storm named ‘Allison’ for the second time in three days. The storm claimed 50 lives and caused destruction worth a whopping $5 billion. Houston received torrential rain measuring 8 inches and by 11th June some regions even received 36 inches of rain.


2007

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Aussie Cities Jolted By Storm

The state of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia saw the worst storm on record on June 8. Heavy rains and high velocity winds hit the harbour city of Newcastle and the city of Lake Macquarie causing flash floods and loss of nine lives. The storm was so violent that Pasha Bulker, a carrier of ores, had to be grounded on Nobby’s beach in Newcastle.


1966

Sports

Rival Football Teams Unite

On June 8th, two professional football leagues in the U.S, the ‘National Football League (NFL)’ and ‘American Football League (AFL)’, declared that they would merge. This united entity, the ‘National Football League’, eventually turned into one of the most powerful leagues in America.


1985

Sports

‘Clones’ Cyclone Wins Featherweight Title

Barry McGuigan became the first U.K boxer since Howard Winstone to win the ‘World Boxing Association (WBA)’ featherweight championship title, in 1985. McGuigan defeated Eusebio Pedroza from Panama and ended his seven-year winning streak. McGuigan’s real name is Finbar Patrick McGuigan and is popularly known as the ‘Clones Cyclone’.


1912

Literature & Entertainment

‘Universal’ Is Born

On June 8th, American film producer Carl Laemmle merged his ‘Independent Moving Picture Company’ of America with 5 other minor firms to form the ‘Universal Film Manufacturing Company’. The new enterprise dealt in all areas of film making like production, distribution and release. Laemmle, a German, was touted as the ‘Father of the Hollywood star system’.


1948

Literature & Entertainment

‘Texaco Star Theatre’ Series Debuts In United States

The hit Television series ‘Texaco Star Theatre’ was aired for the first time in 1948. The comedy-variety show was hosted by the renowned comedian Milton Berle. Surprisingly, the popularity of comedian Berle and the ‘Texaco Star Theater’ resulted in a sharp increase in the sale of television sets across the United States.


1949

Literature & Entertainment

Orwell's 1984 Novel Comes Out

George Orwell’s classic novel ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ was published on this day. Orwell was an English journalist and author whose real name is Eric Arthur Blair.


1969

Literature & Entertainment

Brian Jones Quits ‘Rolling Stones’

The ‘Rolling Stones’ band member Brian Jones left the troupe on June 8th, apparently due of his addiction to drinks and drugs. Jones was the person who formed and even christened this band. Jones introduced music lovers to several interesting instruments through songs like ‘Lady Jane’, ‘Under My Thumb’ and ‘Paint It Black’.


1984

Literature & Entertainment

The Movie ‘Ghostbusters’ Hits Theatres Across The U.S

The hit comedy flick ‘Ghostbusters’ was released across America on 8th June. The film was directed and produced by Ivan Reitman and had actors Bill Murray, Dan Aykroyd and Harold Ramis in lead roles. The film’s story is about a few Parapsychology professors who indulge in paranormal activities.


1999

Literature & Entertainment

‘Hannibal’ By Thomas Harris Hits Bookstores

The novel ‘Hannibal’ penned by Thomas Harris was unveiled in America on 8th June, 1999. The protagonist is the serial killer Hannibal Lecter who was introduced in a small role in Harris’ book ‘Red Dragon’. The book is the last of the Lecter series by the author.


2001

Literature & Entertainment

Harper's Weekly Publishes ‘Pan-American Exposition’ Cartoon

The ‘Pan-American Exposition’, a World's Fair organised in Buffalo, New York, was the subject of a cartoon which was published in the magazine ‘Harper's Weekly’ on June 8, 1901. The cartoon was sketched by Albert Levering and depicts the exhibition as a cooking pan held together by cheerful personifications of Latin-American countries.


1794

Trivia

Robespierre Leads Supreme Being Festival

Maximilien de Robespierre, a prominent personality of the French Revolution, spearheaded the festival of the Supreme Being at the Tuileries Gardens on June 8. Thus, he gave his rivals another reason to oppose him. Robespierre asserted the existence of God and the immortality of the soul and tried to make the revolutionaries support a civic religion and the cult of the Supreme Being.


1856

Trivia

Pitcairn Islanders Reach Norfolk Island

In 1856, when the Pitcairn Island became over populated, 194 of its residents left for Norfolk Island, Australia and reached there on June 8. Considered as the descendants of the mutineers of the ship ‘HMS Bounty’, the Pitcairn Islanders were in a dilemma whether to stay Pitcairn or shift base to Norfolk.


1887

Trivia

Hollerith Files For Art Of Compiling Statistics Patent

The inventor of the tabulating machine Herman Hollerith applied for a patent for his Art of Compiling Statistics in 1887, which was granted two years later. This work led to the development of his path-breaking invention, the Punch Card Reader. Hollerith earned a PhD degree from ‘Columbia University’, New York in 1889, for working on the details about this research work, in a paper titled ‘An Electrical Tabulating System’. Hollerith’s punch card reader made it easy to process large data very fast.


1948

Trivia

Porsche’s Prototype Created

The first, completely hand-made prototype of the car ‘Porsche’ was built by Austrian automobile engineer Ferdinand Porsche on June 8, 1948. The electric car’s first design was unveiled at the World’s Fair in Paris in 1900.


1949

Trivia

‘F.B.I’ Names Communist Party Members

Believing the charges made by certain confidential sources the ‘Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I)’ named some celebrities as Communist Party members. The list included the names of author Helen Keller, writer & critic Dorothy Parker, actors Danny Kaye, Fredric March, John Garfield, Paul Muni and Edward G. Robinson. Such lists were formed to suppress communist tendencies in the U.S between 1940 and 1950.


1953

Trivia

U.S Supreme Court Asks Food Joints To Serve Blacks

In order to grant black people equal rights, the Supreme Court of the United States, made it mandatory for restaurants in Washington D.C to serve people of African American descent. A few eating joints were found guilty of violating fundamental rights prescribed by the constitution.


1959

Trivia

U.S Tries Out Missile Mail

A cruise missile was fired from American navy submarine ‘USS Barbero’ to send 3,000 mails to the Naval Auxiliary Air Station in Mayport, Florida. This ‘Missile Mail’ experiment was done in association with the United States Postal Service. The missile mail comprised of commemorative postal covers for several government officers.


1965

Trivia

USSR Launches ‘Luna 6’ Spacecraft

The Soviet Union launched the ‘Luna 6’ robotic spacecraft to the moon on this day. This was one of the several planned launches to the moon. The aim of this mission was to collect data about the moon on several parameters like temperature, atmosphere, gravity etc. for scientific and astronomical usage.


1968

Trivia

Ray Arrested Over Luther King’s Death

On June 8, 1968, James Earl Ray was held in the murder case of American Civil rights activist Dr Martin Luther King. Ray, who worked in the U.S army during the last days of World War II, was arrested by Scotland Yard police in London. To avoid capital punishment, Ray accepted that he had killed Dr. King. The court sentenced Ray to 99 years of imprisonment.


1978

Trivia

James Becomes The First Woman To Sail The World

Naomi James became the first woman to sail the world alone when she completed her journey at Dartmouth. The New Zealander also created a new solo world record by taking two days lesser to complete her voyage around the world. James sailed for around nine months.


1984

Trivia

Australia Decriminalizes Homosexuality

To grant gay and lesbian individuals equal rights as others, homosexuality was legalized in Australia, in 1984. The state of New South Wales became the first to implement the provision. The then Prime Minister Neville Wran’s government introduced the legislation, which was eventually passed by the Australian Parliament.


1996

Trivia

China Conducts Nuclear Test

China performed an underground nuclear test on June 8th and said that it was going to conduct another one by September. The Asian nation held the tests before willing to join the nations that supported a ban on such tests.


2004

Trivia

Transit Of Venus Occurs After 122 Years

The transit of Venus was observed after 122 years, in 2004. During the transit, the planet Venus appears as a small black disc that crosses the sun, when it comes between the sun and a superior planet like the Earth. The event holds great importance, since it had helped in determining the size of the solar system, back in the 18th century.


People Born This Day

Robert Schumann
(1810-1856)
Composer, Aesthete and Music Critic [ German ]
Barbara Bush
(1925-)
Former First Lady of the U.S [ American ]
Frank Lloyd Wright
(1867-1959)
Architect [ American ]
Joan Rivers
(1933-2014)
Actress [ American ]
Alexis Smith
(1921-1993)
Actress [ Canadian ]
Kanye West
(1977-)
Rapper, Singer-Songwriter, Record Producer [ American ]
Francis Crick
(1916-2004)
Co-discoverer of the Structure of the DNA Molecule, Nobel Prize Winner [ British ]
John W. Campbell
(1910-1971)
Science Fiction Writer [ American ]
John Smeaton
(1724-1792)
Civil Engineer [ British ]
Tim Berners-Lee
(1955-)
Inventor of the World Wide Web [ British ]
Giovanni Domenico Cassini
(1625-1712)
Astronomer and Mathematician [ Italian ]
Kenneth G. Wilson
(1936-2013)
Physicist [ American ]
Eric F. Wieschaus
(1947-)
Development Biologist [ American ]
Hayes Grier
(2000-)
YouTuber, Viner [ American ]
Francesca Angelucci Capaldi
(2004-)
[ American ]
Dasha Zhukova
(1981-)
Businesswoman & Art Collector [ Russian ]
Rosanna Pansino
(1985-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Keenen Ivory Wayans
(1958-)
Film Actor, Television Actor, Comedian, Director, Producer [ American ]
Jerry Stiller
(1927-)
Comedian [ American ]


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