8th April In History

French dictator Napoleon Bonaparte once said, "History is a set of lies agreed upon." Just as beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder, history too is a version recounted by the victor. But how do we decide if the stories from the past are true or otherwise? It thus becomes essential to be acquainted with the past so that we have a better understanding of the events. Towards this goal let us begin by studying the incidents which occurred on April 8. It is not just a number but as you'll see later on that it witnessed a number of significant occurrences. This day in history bears testimony to events that changed the course of history and mankind – from bloody battles to technological advancements, to several landmark decisions being taken by world leaders, to numerous records being created by sportsmen across the globe, to deadly disasters which caused loss of life and property – this day has seen it all. Tune in to Today in History and delve deep into the realms of history. Who knows what you might uncover?




Assassination Of Roman Emperor Caracalla

When Roman Emperor Caracalla appointed Marcus Opellius Macrinus as his Praetorian Guard Prefect, little did he know that upon his death Marcinus would proclaim himself as the Emperor. Caracalla was killed during a trip to the temple of Luna on April 8, 217, where he went only with his personal bodyguard which included Macrinus.
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King Charibert II And His Infant Son Chilperic Are Assassinated

King Charibert II was one among the most powerful Merovingian king who acquired the lands of Aquitaine and Gascony. The emperor was killed by treason on orders of Dagobert I, his half-brother, at Blaye on this fateful day in 632.
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Roger II Of Sicily Is Excommunicated

The second lateran council summoned by Pope Innocent II, excommunicated roger II of Sicily. The reason was refusal on part of roger II to allow Pope Innocent to use the principality of Capua as an intermediary between the Papal States and Roger's kingdom.
Image Credit : http://barcalonga.blogspot.in/2014/04/new-conflict-research-roger-ii-of.html



Pope Eugene III Takes Refuge In The Castle Of Ptolemy II Of Tusculum

At the behest of Arnold of Bresica, the citizens of Rome reinstated the old Roman constitution as an act of opposition to the Pope's temporal powers. This led to Pope Eugene III’s appeals for help to Rome's enemies. He was offered refuge by the count of Tusculum, Ptolemy II on April 8, 1149.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/pope_eugene_iii



English Colonial Patents Are Granted For The Establishment Of The Monmouth Tract In Northeastern New

It was during the initial stages of American colonization that the Monmouth Tract was signed on April 8, 1665. The patent granted the land of Monmouth Tract to the settlers.
Image Credit : https://www.loc.gov/item/2012590163/



Italy And Prussia Ally Against Austria

Austria and Prussia were divided over the question of Unification of Germany and the differences between the two led to the third Italian War of Independence. On April 8, 1866, Italy openly declared their allegiance to Prussia and extended military and naval support.
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William Ewart Gladstone Introduces The First Irish Government Bill

On April 8, 1886, British Premier William Ewart Gladstone introduced the first Irish home rule speech in the parliament. In a compelling speech that lasted for almost three hours, Gladstone ensured the Irish government bill was passed in the British house of commons.
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The French Third Republic And The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland Sign The Entente Cordi

The Entente Cordiale was an agreement between the French and United Kingdom aimed to improve the relations among the signing parties. Signed on April 8, 1904 the policy also ensured security for the participating nations against any German threat.
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The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act Of 1935 Becomes Law

On April 8, 1935, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the emergency relief appropriation act. This led to the formation of works progress administration, an organization that aimed at tackling the great depression by providing employment mainly to the unskilled people in various public works projects.
Image Credit : http://nddaily.blogspot.in/2015_11_01_archive.html



U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Introduces A String Of Economic Reforms To Curb Inflation

Former US President Franklin Roosevelt is known for steering his country through the difficult times of great depression. As a part of his economic reform policies, on this day in 1943, he passed orders which prohibited common carriers and public utilities from increasing prices, the wages of workers were to not to be changed and workers themselves were not allowed to change jobs unless required by the military.
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U.S. President Harry Truman Calls For The Seizure Of All Domestic Steel Mills

The United Steelworkers of America were planning to hold a nationwide strike for increasing the wages of workers beginning on April 9, 1952. However the day before the strike was scheduled, US President Harry Truman announced the nationalization of the entire steel industry. The premier drew a lot of flak for his decision and the steelmakers appealed to the legal system against the order.
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Jomo Kenyatta Is Convicted By Kenya's British Rulers

Jomo Kenyatta was a Kenyan freedom fighter and the nation's first President after it won independence from the British colonial rule. On April 8, 1953, Kenyatta along with several other nationalist leaders was convicted by the colonial rulers for leading an uprising against the government.
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The Inter-American Development Bank Is Created

Though the concept of an Inter-American development institution was floating since the 1890s it wasn't until 1959 that it finally culminated to reality. On April 8, the organization of american states drafted an agreement that lay the founding stone for creation of the Inter-American development bank.
Image Credit : http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/business/idb-approves-us-140-million-in-new-loans-to-jamaica_15963040



The Netherlands And West Germany Sign An Agreement

The Netherlands demanded war repartitions from the Germans after the conclusion of WWII. Originally demanding money, the Dutch finally agreed to accept 69 sq. Km. Of German land. However in 1963, West Germany reclaimed the land in exchange for a sum of 280 Million German Marks.
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British Ships Capture The Spanish Third-Rate Princesa, During The War Of Jenkins' Ear

During the war of Jenkins' ear, on April 8, 1740, three British third rate ships (which carry 70 guns onboard) HMS Kent, HMS Lenox and HMS Orford, and the Spanish third rate ship Princesa were involved in the battle. The British naval ships eventually gained control of the Princesa and the ship was inducted into the Royal Navy as HMS Princess.
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Black Hawk War Commences

When the British Band, a group of native Americans comprising of members from Sauk, Meskwaki, and Kickapoo Tribes, led by Black Hawk landed in the US State of Illinois, in April 1832, the US Militia moved into swift action. Realizing a potential threat, forces were mobilized and around three-hundred troops from the 6th infantry regiment embarked on a journey to Illinois from Missouri on April 8.
Image Credit : http://blackhawkjourney.blogspot.in/2014/03/2-1-saukenuk-2014-quest-begins.html



Union Forces Are Thwarted In The Battle Of Mansfield

The Battle of Mansfield was an important campaign during the American Civil War. Fought as a part of the Red River campaign, the union forces led by Nathaniel Banks were defeated at the hands of confederates led by Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor.
Image Credit : http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/mansfield/mansfield-history-articles/mansfieldanders.html?referrer=https://www.google.co.in/



Soviet Forces Open A Much-Needed Railway Link To Leningrad During The Siege Of Leningrad

In the siege of leningrad which occurred during wwii, the russians thwarted all attempts of the germans to invade the country. On april 8, 1942, the russian forces were able to restore a railway link to leningrad thus enabling food supplies to be delivered to the city.
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The Japanese Take Bataan In The Philippines During World War II

The Battle of Bataan concluded on April 8, 1942 with the Japanese forces gaining control of Bataan in Philippines. The American and Filpino forces surrendered before Maj. Gen. Kameichiro Nagano of the Imperial Japanese army the following day.
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Air Raid Accidentally Destroys A Train Carrying Nazi Concentration Camp Internees In Prussian Hanove

Prior to Germany's surrender in the WWII, the allied forces targeted the transport carriages to the concentration camps maintained by the Nazis. In one such airstrike on April 8, 1945, a Freight car with 2,862 inmates was hit accidentally. The surviving inmates fled from the scene only to be hunted and massacred by the German troops and public.
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The Sudanese Government And Two Rebel Groups Sign Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement

With the armed conflict between the Sudanese government and the rebel groups of Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), in the Darfur region of Sudan, continued escalating, chad acted as an intermediary for peace talks. The negotiations led to the signing of April 8 humanitarian ceasefire agreement.
Image Credit : http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article49693



The ISI And The Al-Nusra Front Unite Under The Name Islamic State Of Iraq And Ash-Sham

On April 8, 2013 Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) Leader Abu Omar Al-Baghdadi announced that the ISI and Al-Nusra front would join forces in the Civil War against Syria. The resulting organization was named the ‘Islamic State of Iraq and Ash-Sham’.
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Disasters & Natural Calamities

Race Car Driver Bob Burman Dies In Car Crash

Bob Burman was a Racecar Driver who created a world car in the 1911 Indianapolis 500-mile Sweepstakes. On April 8, 1916 during the Corona Race Bob's open-cockpit Peugeot met with a fatal accident. The car rolled over killing its driver and three spectators in the unfortunate incident.
Image Credit : http://www.gregwapling.com/hotrod/land-speed-racing-history/land-speed-racing-bob-burman.html


Disasters & Natural Calamities

37 Killed In Aircraft Collision Over Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan

A collision between a Royal Canadian Air Force Canadair and a Trans-Canadian North Star occurred on this fateful day in 1954 in Moose Jaw. The accident resulted in the death of 36 people aboard the flight and one person on the land.
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Disasters & Natural Calamities

South African Airways Flight 201 Crashes Into The Sea During Night Killing 21

On April 8, 1954 the South African Airways Flight 201 crashed during its journey from Rome to Cairo via London. All the passengers aboard the De Havilland Comet 1 Commercial Jetliner were killed in the incident.
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Disasters & Natural Calamities

238 Killed In A Large Explosion On Board The MV Dara

An explosion which occurred on April 8, 1961 on the MV Dara, a Dubai based passenger liner killed more than 238 people. The incident occurred in the Persian Gulf in Western Asia.
Image Credit : http://www.thenational.ae/uae/heritage/one-mans-search-for-those-lost-at-sea-the-mv-dara-tragedy


Disasters & Natural Calamities

Israeli Bombers Strike Bahr El-Baqar Primary School In Egypt

On April 8, 1970 F4 Phantom II fighter bombers attacked the Bahr El-Baqar primary school in Egypt. The Israelis carried out the attacks under the impression that it was an Egyptian military base. 46 students were killed and more than 50 were injured.
Image Credit : http://www.masress.com/en/dailynews/64519



Hank Aaron Surpasses Babe Ruth's 39-Year-Old Record

On this day in 1974, Legendary Baseball Player Hank Aaron charted history at Atlanta–Fulton county stadium when he hit his 715th Home Run. The hit allowed him to surpass Babe Ruth's long-standing record for hitting the most number of Home Runs.
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Frank Robinson Becomes First African American Manager Of A Major League Baseball Team

Frank Robinson became the manager of the professional baseball team Cleveland Indians on April 8, 1975. His appointment made him the first African American manager of a major league team.
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Los Angeles Dodgers General Manager Al Campanis Resigns

Al Campanis held the position of general manager for Los Angeles Dodgers. But he was pressurized into stepping down by the club after he made racist comments, during his appearance on the news program 'Nightline', against blacks being incompetent for holding managerial positions. His resignation came in two days after the interview on April 6, 1987.
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Literature & Entertainment

The First Chapter Of The Book Of The Law Is Transcribed By Aleister Crowley

British Occultist Aleister Crowley was a Forerunner of Thelemic Mysticism. On this day he transcribed the first chapter of the 'Book of the Law', the sacred text which laid the foundation of a new Aeon in Philosophy. In Crowley's words, the books were written through him rather than by him.
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The New Winchester Cathedral Is Consecrated

Bishop Walkelin the first Norman Bishop of the Winchester Cathedral of England consecrated the New Cathedral in 1093 on this day. The church is known for its design; The Nave (or the main body of the church) is the longest among all Gothic Cathedrals in Europe.
Image Credit : Wikimedia commons



The First Synagogue In New York City, Is Dedicated

This day was of immense importance to the Jewish community of USA. The first ever building designed and built as a Synagogue was consecrated in New York City, on April 8, 1730. The Shearith Israel House of Worship had a seating area in the gallery, designated for women.
Image Credit : http://www.museumoffamilyhistory.com/syn-nyc-shearith-israel-01.htm



The Statue Of Venus De Milo Is Discovered

The Marble Statue of Venus De Milo depicting the Greek Goddess of Love and Beauty was discovered on the Aegan Island of Melos. The statue was accidentally excavated from underneath a pile of stones by a farmer working in the area. A French Navy official Olivier Voutier was looking for antiquities in the region at the same time, while his warship was stationed at the port.
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The Supreme Court Of The United States Rules In Pollock V. Farmers' Loan & Trust Company

On this day in 1895 the Supreme Court of the United States gave its verdict on the landmark case of Pollock V. Farmers' Loan & Trust Company. The ruling stated that income taxes levied on interest, dividends and rents that weren’t apportioned for were unconstitutional. This was because they were in conflict with the provision in the constitution that direct taxes need to be apportioned.
Image Credit : http://blog.constitutioncenter.org/2013/01/baseball-team-flunks-history-with-taft-mascot-pick/



Longacre Square In Midtown Manhattan Is Renamed Times Square

Times Square in Manhattan, New York City is one of the world's most visited tourist venues with more than 300,000 people passing through the intersection every day. But did you know that it was originally known as the Longacre Square? On April 8, 1904 it earned its present name after 'The New York Times', as the newspaper shifted its Headquarters to the Times building.
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Auguste Deter, The First Person To Be Diagnosed With Alzheimer's Disease, Dies

April 8, 1906 was a day of immense importance in the history of Medical Science. It was on this fateful date that the first patient diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease, Auguste Deter died at the institution for the mentally ill and for epileptics in Frankfurt, Germany. Dr. Alois Alzheimer, who handled her case, later performed an autopsy of Auguste's Brain. It led to important discoveries being made in understanding the condition.
Image Credit : http://www.investigacionyciencia.es/blogs/psicologia-y-neurociencia/63/posts/la-historia-clnica-de-auguste-d-13791



The Harvard Business School Is Established

One of the Premier Business Schools across the Globe, the Harvard Business School Alumni includes Former US President George W. Bush, Sotheby's CEO Tad Smith, Henry Paulson the Former CEO of Goldman Sachs and the Like. On this day in 1908, the Harvard University's board of overseers voted in favour of establishing the B-school.
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Dutch Physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Discovers Superconductivity

Had it not been for Scientist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, the world would have remained unknown to the phenomenon of Superconductivity exhibited by certain materials. He first observed this property in Mercury on April 8, 1911 at 16:00 hours. He received a Nobel Prize for his discovery.
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The 17th Amendment To The United States Constitution, Requiring Direct Election Of Senators, Becomes

On this day in 1913, Connecticut became the 36th state to ratify the 17th Amendment to the Constitution of United States, which made the election of senators by the people of the nation mandatory. The Amendment thus formally became Legislation.
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Douglas Fairbanks And Charlie Chaplin Sell War Bonds In Wall Street

In a bid to raise funds for World War I, the United States Treasury started selling War Bonds or Liberty Bonds as they were known. On this day in 1918, Hollywood Celebrities, Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin took to the streets for promoting sales of the War Bonds. Tens of Thousands of people flocked to the Wall Street to purchase bonds at the behest of these two actors.
Image Credit : http://www.boweryboyshistory.com/2014/04/charlie-chaplin-on-wall-street-tale.html



Électricité De France, The World's Largest Utility Company, Is Formed

The French State owned Électricité De France S.A. Is one of the World's Largest Utility Companies. It was formed on April 8, 1946, when as many as 1700 smaller companies including Energy Producers, Transporters and Distributors were Nationalized.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/%c3%89lectricit%c3%a9_de_france



Grace Hopper & Team Meet For The First Time To Discuss The Creation Of Cobol

The World knows Grace Murray Hopper as the Inventor of Cobol Programming Language. It was on this day that the Pioneering Computer Scientist led a team of Computer Manufacturers, Users and Academicians which eventually developed Cobol.
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Gemini 1 Launched

On April 8, 1964, NASA launched the first unmanned Spacecraft Gemini I into the Space. The purpose of the Test Flight was to check the integrity of the spacecraft with the modified launch vehicle Titan II.
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Boac Flight 712 Catches Fire Shortly After Take Off

The British Overseas Airways Corporation Flight 712, chartered between the London and Sydney via Zurich. On this fateful day, the Boeing 707-465 caught fire during Takeoff Owing to a technical snag in the engine. Stewardess Barbara Jane Harrison Onboard the flight received the George Cross Posthumously for her actions, making her the only woman recipient of the honor during peacetime.
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Retired Tennis Great Arthur Ashe Announces That He Has Aids

Arthur Ashe was a renowned professional tennis player from the United States. He won Three Grand Slams making him the only man of color to earn the Titles of the Wimbledon, the US Open, or the Australian open. On April 8, 1992, Arthur made it public that he had contracted hiv by the use of infected blood during his heart surgeries.
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The Republic Of Macedonia Joins The United Nations

The Republic of Macedonia was formerly a part of the socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but gained independence in 1991. The nation became a member of the United Nations on April 8, 1993.
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The Funeral Of Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II died on April 2, 2005 and the Papal head was bid farewell in a funeral ceremony which was held on April 8. The funeral was attended by as many as Four Million People, making it one of the largest gatherings in the history of Christianity.
Image Credit : http://jp2m.blogspot.in/2011/04/john-paul-ii-4-millionayatollah.html



Shedden Massacre: The Bodies Of Eight Men, All Shot To Death, Are Discovered

Bodies of eight men killed in the Shedden Massacre in Ontario, Canada were discovered by a local farmer on April 8, 2006. The members of Bandidos Motor Gang were arrested in connection to the murders.
Image Credit : http://www.thestar.com/news/ontario/2009/02/22/small_town_tries_to_forget_biker_massacre.html



The Construction Of The Bahrain World Trade Center Is Completed

The Bahrain World Trade Center is a Twin Tower complex in Manama. The 240 meter high Skyscraper is the first in the world to incorporate the use of wind turbines. It was completed on April 8, 2008.
Image Credit : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:bahrain_world_trade_center_from_below.jpg

People Born This Day

Kofi Annan
Secretary General of the United Nations [ Ghanaian ]
John R Hicks
Economist [ British ]
Harvey Williams Cushing
Neurosurgeon [ American ]
Barbara Kingsolver
Novelist, Poet, Essayist [ American ]
Robert Kiyosaki
Businessman, Motivational Speaker & Author [ American ]
Dame Vivienne Westwood
[ British ]
Julian Lennon
[ British ]
Mary Pickford
Actress, Producer, Screenwriter [ Canadian ]
Robin Wright
Actress [ American ]
Kumar Gandharva
Hindustani classical singer [ Indian ]
Giuseppe Tartini
[ Italian ]
Adam Khoo
Entrepreneur [ Singaporean ]
Patricia Arquette
Actress [ American ]
Jacques Brel
Singer and Actor [ Belgian ]
Hugo von Mohl
Botanist [ German ]
Melvin Calvin
Biochemist [ American ]
Skai Jackson
Instagram Star, Actress, Social media Personality [ American ]
Tobi Lerone
YouTuber and Gamer [ British ]

People Died This Day

Margaret Thatcher
Only Woman Prime Minister of United Kingdom [ British ]
Gaetano Donizetti
Composer [ Italian ]
Omar Bradley
Former U. S. Army General [ American ]
Pablo Picasso
Painter [ Spanish ]
Ryan White
[ American ]
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
[ Indian ]
Marian Anderson
Singer [ American ]
Mangal Pandey
Revolutionary [ Indian ]
Vaslav Nijinsky
Ballet Dancer [ Ukrainian ]
Róbert Bárány
Otologist [ Austrian ]
Daniel Bovet
Pharmacologist [ Italian ]
Pyotr Kapitsa
Physicist [ Russian ]
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