5th September In History

The 5th day of September is an eventful day in history. It was on this day that the first Labor Day holiday was celebrated and the first parade held in New York in 1882. The seeds for the cold war were sown and Russia, which had been an ally in the World War II, soon, became an enemy of the West. Many other political developments took place on this day to make it memorable in history. Alliances – economic and political – were made and our civilization is reaping the benefits of those, teaching us that the way ahead is united and differences are there to celebrate and not to fight against. This was realized by the first continental congress where all the colonies joined and representatives petitioned together for justice and fair treatment of Americans. Some funny events like the imposition of Beard Tax occurred on this day. The Tsar felt beards were uncivilized and wanted his subjects to look more modern and civilized. Read on to discover more of our history, the serious, the good and the bad, that built our world’s civilization as we know it now. Explore and expand the horizons of your knowledge…


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 5th September



1661

Politics

Nicolas Fouquet, Superintendent Of Finances In The Court Of Louis IV Arrested

Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances at the court of Louis XIV, was arrested in Nantes by D'Artagnan, captain of the King's musketeers on 5th September 1661. The authoritarian King Louis IV observed Nicolas’s overt display of wealth and the hopeless condition of the kingdom’s finances. The judges exiled him from France after his trial but King Louis changed this sentence to imprisonment in the citadel of Pignerol.


1698

Politics

Russian Tsar Peter I Imposes Tax On Beards For Men

The Tsar returned from his tour of Western Europe, and noticed that many of the people there were clean shaven so he wanted to revolutionize and modernize Russian society and fashion. He imposed a Beard Tax on September 5th 1698 on all men except the clergy and the peasants. This meant that men would have to pay up to 100 Roubles for a copper or silver beard token which had the message that beards are useless burdens.


1774

Politics

First Continental Congress Assembles In Philadelphia

The first continental congress assembled in Philadelphia on September 5th 1774. All the colonies sent delegates except for Georgia which needed the British to help them keep off the attacks from the restive Creek on their borders. The Congress, at that point, did not want independence but hoped their united voice would force London to respond and right the wrongs that were committed against the colonies.


1798

Politics

Conscription Is Made Mandatory In France

Conscription became mandatory for Frenchmen on 5th September 1798 based on the Jourdan-Delbrel Law. This was named after the two men who drafted the law, Jean Baptiste Jourdan and Pierre Delbrel. As per the law, all single and childless men between the ages of 20 and 25 were liable for military service.


1836

Politics

Sam Houston Is Elected As The First President Of The Republic Of Texas

Sam Houston was elected the first president of Texas on 5th September 1836 after it gained independence from Mexico. Houston was a great statesman, military general and the city of Houston is named after him. He was the President till 1844 and when Texas became a part of the Confederacy, he joined the U.S Senate and served as a senator. He was governor of Texas till 1861 and was deposed as he refused to join the Union.


1915

Politics

The Pacifist Zimmerwald Conference Begins

On September 5th 1915 leaders from over 12 European nations came together to discuss how the imperialist war of capitalists was affecting the proletariat. This was the Pacifist Zimmerwald manifesto that created an enormous stir in the working class and the soldiers against class struggle. It was the first time there was solidarity among international intellectuals of Europe to discuss the need for equality among classes and respect for the working class inciting the Russian revolution though, by then, its ideals were lost in obscurity.


1932

Politics

French Upper Volta Broken Between Ivory Coast, French Sudan And Niger

French Upper Volta was broken up by the French between Ivory Coast, French Sudan and Niger, with Ivory Coast getting the most of the erstwhile Upper Volta. Due to the intensely anti-colonial sentiments in the region after World War II on 4th September 1947, Upper Volta was restored to its former borders and is now known as Burkina Faso.


1944

Politics

Belgium, Netherlands And Luxembourg Constitute Benelux

This was the first post war transnational organization signed on 5th September 1944 in London by the governments in exile of Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg that. It is considered a precursor and proving ground that economic co-operation is possible between nations. This was in the heels of the Benulux monetary agreement in 1943 wherein exchange rates were fixed between the currencies of the 3 countries.


1945

Politics

Igor Gouzenko Exposes Soviet Spying In North America

Igor Gouzenko was a clerk at the Soviet embassy stationed in Canada. Disillusioned with his homeland, he defected to Canada by revealing that Soviet was spying on North America even after the war. On the night of 5th September 1945, he walked in to the night editor’s cabin and said, “It’s War. It’s Russia.”, but the night editor dismissed him. But when the government verified the information, it created mistrust about the Soviets in the western nations about Soviet intentions and triggered the Cold War.


1945

Politics

Iva Toguri D'Aquino Arrested, Suspected Of Being Tokyo Rose

Iva Toguri D’Aquino, American-born Japanese was arrested for being ‘Tokyo Rose’, an anti-war radio propagandist. She had gone to visit relatives in Japan and got stuck there during World War II so she worked in the radio to support herself. She was accused by the FBI of being an anti-American radio propagandist, ‘Tokyo Rose’ in Yokohama. This, however, could not be proved and she was released.


1975

Politics

Bid To Assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford

On 5th September, Lynette Fromme attempted to assassinate President Gerald Ford as he was on his way to address the California legislature on the topic of crime. Before she was able to shoot, Secret Service agents tackled and disarmed her.


1978

Politics

Menachem And Anwar Sadat Begin Peace Discussions At Camp David

After decades of war between Israel and Egypt, President Carter encouraged Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to meet at Camp David, Maryland, U.S.A. On 5th September 1978, the three of them met to hold peace discussions which went on for almost a fortnight between the three before an agreement was reached. The Camp David discussions were centered on the need for peace in the Middle Eastern region of Asia between Israel and her neighbors – mainly Egypt and Palestine.


1957

Politics

Cuban Dictator Batista Bombs Cienfuegos Uprising

Disillusioned by the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista, members of the naval, army and air force planned a coup against the Batista administration. But it lacked co-ordination and failed. The Cienfuegos uprising was bombed in retaliation on 5th September 1957.


1984

Politics

Western Australia Becomes The Last Australian State To Abolish Capital Punishment

On 5th September 1984, Western Australia became the last province to abolish capital punishment. The first to do so was the state of Queensland in 1922, followed by Tasmania in 1975. Australia had a small population, but as many as 80 lives were claimed without regard to age or gender every year because of capital punishment.


1781

Wars

Battle Of The Chesapeake In The American Revolutionary War

General Cornwallis wanted to join his forces with those in New York. At Chesapeake Bay, the French lay in wait for them and the Battle of Chesapeake began between the British and the French. The French attacked the British on 5th September 1781, but this battle ended inconclusively. But this contributed to the British surrender at the siege of Yorktown and led to American independence.


1793

Wars

The French National Convention Initiates The Reign Of Terror

The French Reign of Terror began on the 5th September 1793 and lasted till July 1794. The first victim of the reign of terror was Louis VI’s wife, Marie Antoinette. From then on, any who were suspected by the Committee of Public Safety with the thought of treason was sent to the guillotine. This reign of terror was spearheaded by Maximilien Robespierre who believed that terror should be fought with terror.


1812

Wars

War Of 1812: The Siege Of Fort Harrison Begins

During the War of 1812, between the United States government and the Native Americans, the Americans wanted to repair the fortifications of Fort Wayne in Indiana where the Indians were going to attack them. Chief Winamac and Five Medals approached the fortifications with the intention of destroying the fortifications. They were successful and held the Fort Wayne in siege for a week, starving the army of the United States till they were rescued a week later.


1862

Wars

The Confederate Army Crosses Potomac River

The Confederate army under the command of Stonewall Jackson crossed the Potomac River into Maryland on the evening of September 5 1862. Lee wanted to get into northern territory after routing the Union soldiers in the Battle of Manassas. Though his army was shoeless and deprived of rations, the Confederates hoped Maryland would aid them as they were more sympathetic to the Southerners cause. Unfortunately, it did not turn out to be that way.


1877

Wars

American Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux Chief Crazy Horse Is Killed

Chief Crazy Horse of the Indian Oglala Sioux tribe was bayoneted by a United States soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska. The previous year, his tribe had fought and lost in the war against the United States government when the latter captured their land. Crazy Horse was a fearless warrior who when taken prisoner on September 5th 1877, tried to escape and was killed in the process.


1905

Wars

Russo-Japanese War: The Treaty Of Portsmouth Is Signed

The Russo-Japanese war had been ongoing since 1904 but the Russians were facing losses and the Japanese were incurring financial losses. The United States, Britain and Germany were instrumental in bringing about peace. Finally, President Roosevelt mediated the Treaty of Portsmouth on September 5 1905 forcing Japan to give up Manchuria to the Chinese.


1914

Wars

World War I: First Battle Of The Marne Begins

On 5th September 1914, the First battle of Marne began and it was the first chance of victory for the allies due to poor communication amongst the German commanders. General Kluck of the German army thought he had defeated the British and that the French he encountered were scattered survivors. He was unfortunately wrong and 5 days later, he had to surrender and retreat.


1938

Wars

The Seguro Obrero Massacre Takes Place

80 young Nazi students who were part of the National Socialist Movement of Chile are massacred at the Seguro Obrero on 5th September 1938. This execution was allegedly ordered by Arturo Alessandri – the then president of Chile, who was reacting to a coup that was planned to topple his government. The members of the National Socialists had already surrendered to the Chilean government and had communicated to their counterparts in Sguro Obrero to lay down their arms, but they were shot down by the military.


1942

Wars

World War II: Japan Orders Withdrawal At Milne Bay

The battle of Milne Bay was the first major Japanese defeat in land warfare during the Pacific War. The Australians and Americans had bombed their supplies and set up an air base ahead of them. The Japanese had tried to regroup and fight back the Allies but lack of proper supplies and the hostile tropical conditions made it difficult for them to attack since they had no air base in the region. On 5th September 1942, the Japanese high command withdrew its command at Milne Bay.


1943

Wars

Landing At Nadzab

The 503rd Parachute Infantry regiment of America landed on Markham valley at Nadzab, New Guinea to stop the progress of the Japanese in that area. The regiment landed by parachute and attacked the Japanese stationed there. The Allies forced the retreat of the Japanese as the latter were unused to the rugged mountainous terrain. The Allies occupied Lae and created an air base in Nadzab, New Guinea.


1969

Wars

My Lai Massacre: Lt Calley Is Charged

Around 347 villagers of My Lai were killed by the American soldiers. This was covered up but a year later, after official Army investigation, on 5th September 1969, U.S. Army Lieutenant William Calley was charged with premeditated murder of 109 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai though the actual count of innocent villagers killed was almost 504.


1970

Wars

Vietnam War: Operation Jefferson Glenn Begins

Operation Jefferson Glen was launched on September 5th 1970 in the Hue Province to protect the critical installations. The United States 101stAirborne Division and the South Vietnamese 1st Infantry Division combined forces in what was to become the last major operation in which the U.S ground forces participated. It was also meant to strengthen the combat capability of the South Vietnamese army so they could enable them to fight the Viet Cong in the North. This parachute regiment left South Vietnam from March 1972.


1887

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Fire At Theatre Royal In Exeter (England), Kills 186

The Theatre Royal was playing the popular play ‘Romany Rye’ and was filled to its full capacity of 1500 people on the 5th September 1887. Unfortunately, during the play, a curtain near the stage caught fire from an open gas-lit torch and within a few minutes, the whole theatre was in flames. The firefighters tried their best to curtail the fire but 186 people died in the fire, most died because of being crushed and suffocated by the smoke and flames.


1996

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Hurricane Fran Makes Landfall Near Cape Fear, North Carolina

Hurricane Fran made landfall in Cape Fear, North Carolina as a Category 3 storm with 115 mph sustained winds. Fran originated in the coast of Africa and had hit the Bahamas the previous day. It was the 2nd of 4 hurricanes to hit North Carolina in the mid 90’s and caused over $3 billion in damage and killed 27 people.


2012

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Accidental Explosion At A Turkish Army Ammunition Store In Afyon

An accidental fire at the Turkish Army ammunitions store in Afyon, West Turkey killed 25 soldiers and wounded four others. The then forestry and water minister, Veysel Eroglu, said that the probable cause was a dropped grenade as some had been found strewn around the storage facility. The authorities had found them and were working to defuse them.


1882

Sports

British Football Team Tottenham Hotspur Formed

The Hotspurs team is officially recorded to have been formed on September 5th 1882 by a group of boys from Tottenham Grammar school to keep fit during winter months when they were not playing cricket. These boys were part of the Hotspur Cricket club, so the football club was christened Hotspur Football Club but two years later, there was confusion between this and the London Hotspur, so the name was changed to Tottenham Hotspur.


1906

Sports

The First Legal Forward Pass In American Football Is Thrown

The forward pass in American football was not popular amongst college football players and coaches. The idea of a forward pass was credited to Eddie Cochems of University of St. Louis University, who is known as the ‘Father of Forward Pass’. Bradbury Robinson of St. Louis University completed the first legal forward pass to teammate Jack Schneider which led to a 22–0 victory over Carroll College.


1960

Sports

Muhammad Ali Wins Olympic Gold

5th September 1960 was a glorious moment for the 18 year old Cassius Clay as he won his first Olympic Gold in Rome. He wanted to withdraw from the games as he hated flying but was convinced by his mentor who told him that if he wouldn’t fly, he wouldn’t win at the Olympics. This turned out to be a boon to both the boxer and the world of boxing as it gained a new great in Cassius Clay, who later came to be known as Muhammad Ali.


1970

Sports

Jochen Rindt Dies During Practice For Italian Grand Prix

Jochen Rindt was a flamboyant racer who took untold risks and loved the speed and thrill of the race. He loved adrenaline rush and drove his cars just as rashly and flamboyantly to win many races. The 5th September 1970 proved to be a fateful day for this Austrian F1 racer as his Lotus inexplicably ploughed into a guardrail as he was practicing for the Italian Grand Prix. His record and style remain unbeaten and he was posthumously awarded the Formula One World Drivers’ Championship.


1990

Sports

Pete Sampras Beats Ivan Lendl To Enter Semi-Finals Of U.S Open

Pete Sampras beat Ivan Lendl who was the 3rd seed at the U.S Open championship on 5th September 1990. In the match 19-year-old took 4 hours to beat the fittest man in the game to move onto the semi-finals and play with John McEnroe who had an easy win over David Wheaton.


1840

Literature & Entertainment

Premiere Of ‘Un Giorno Di Regno’ At La Scala Of Milan

Giuseppe Verdi was a famous opera writer who was commissioned by La Scala impresario Merelli to write three more operas. Un giorno was first of the three but he suffered personal losses – death of his wife and two children, while writing and composing this opera. The first performance at La Scala on 5 September 1840 was a failure, and La Scala cancelled the remaining scheduled performances.


1927

Literature & Entertainment

Trolley Troubles Is Released By Universal Pictures

‘Trolley Troubles’ was the first animated film featuring Oswald the Lucky Rabbit to be released by Universal Pictures and produced by Walt Disney. This character was created by Charles Mintz and his wife Margaret Winkler and the former had the rights of the character as well. Oswald is the first Disney character to generate merchandise and is also known as the basis for the character of the famous Mickey Mouse.


1957

Literature & Entertainment

‘On The Road’, A Novel By American Writer Jack Kerouac, Is Published

‘On the Road’ by Jack Kerouac was first published on 5th September 1957 and epitomizes the Beat Movement. The Beat generation was the post-World War II generation that questioned the then norms of society, culture and politics. Kerouac’s book chronicled the adventures of its protagonists, the Kerouac-like Sal Paradise and his buddy Dean Moriarty, who experimented with drugs, free love and the budding counter-culture. It was written in 3 weeks and was an instant classic.


1958

Literature & Entertainment

Dr. Zhivago Is Published For The First In The U.S

Dr. Zhivago is a famous story of the life and love of Zhivago who is a doctor and poet during the Russian Revolution. This book written by Boris Posternak poignantly depicts Zhivago’s love for Lara capturing the pain and chaos of the times. This book was translated to English by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokohnsky. On 5th September 1958, the book was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature but since Boris was facing threats from the Soviet government, he refused to the prize.


1986

Trivia

Whitney Houston Performs At The 3rd MTV Music Awards

Whitney Houston was only 23 when she performed and won the 3rd MTV Music awards on 5th September 1986 for the song, ‘Saving All my Love for you’ which was about an infatuation of a little girl for a married man. Her debut album which included this song sold for 13 million copies breaking records previously held by the Beatles.


1725

Trivia

Wedding Of Louis XV And Maria Leszczyńska

Marie Leszczynska was the daughter of King Stanisław I of Poland (later Duke of Lorraine) and Catherine Opalińska. She married King Louis XV of France. They married on the 5th September 1725 and were happy with each other initially. But the court took a dislike to their new queen. She was popular with the French people and had 10 children with the king though their marriage eventually suffered.


1862

Trivia

James Glaisher & Henry Tracey Coxwell Break World Record For Altitude

James Glaisher, a meteorologist, and Dr. Henry Tracey Coxwell ascended approximately 11,000 meters above sea-level, breaking the then world record for altitude on 5th September 1862. This flight was taken for the purposes of measuring atmospheric humidity and temperature and the balloon was filled with all the equipment required to measure those. It quickly ascended 8000m soon after taking off.


1882

Trivia

The First United States Labor Day Parade Is Held In New York City

Labor Day was first celebrated on 5th September 1882 by 10,000 laborers who took unpaid time to march from City hall to Union Square in New York, making it the first Labor Day parade. Peter McGuire, co-founder of American Federation of Labor, is said to have proposed it though most suggest that Matthew McGuire, secretary of Central Labor Union, engineered the holiday.


1972

Trivia

Munich Massacre Occurs

The ‘Black September’ was a Palestinian terror outfit that attacked the entire Israeli Olympic contingent of 6 coaches and 5 athletes – and killed 2 of the athletes on the 5th September 1972. The German authorities tried to rescue them for 20 hours but the other 9 were killed the next day. The disbelief and horror of this act is summed up in the words of McKay, ‘They’re all gone!’


1975

Trivia

London Hilton Bombed By IRA

On the 5th of September 1975, the London Hilton hotel received a warnng stating that it was going to be bombed. Before evacuations could take place, the bomb detonated killing 2 people and injuring 63 besides causing structural damage to the hotel and neighboring shops and buildings. The IRA claimed responsibility for the bombing.


1977

Trivia

Kidnapping And Murder Of Hanns-Martin Schleyer

The Red Army Faction (RAF) was disillusioned that ex-Nazi party members were still powerful and free. They used violence to exhibit their disillusionment and this peaked on 5th September 1977 when they kidnapped Hanns Martin Schleyer, the head of German Association of Employers and a former Nazi party member and offered to release him in exchange for 11 members who were imprisoned. Later they found that 3 of them had committed suicide, so they killed Schleyer and dumped his body in the trunk of an Audi.


1977

Trivia

NASA Launches The Voyager I

NASA finally launched The Voyager I from Kennedy Space Centre on 5th September 1977 after a few delays. This satellite journeyed from the Earth and reached Neptune, the farthest planet in the solar system 12 years later, in 1989. This satellite is now orbiting and sending information about the Interstellar, the space beyond the solar system. It has created a landmark in the history of Space and astronomy.


1980

Trivia

The Gotthard Road Tunnel Opens In Switzerland

The Gotthard Tunnel is the largest tunnel in the world measuring 57 km (35.4 miles) and 2.3 km under the Alps from Goschenen in Uri to Airolo, Ticino. This tunnel was path breaking in its engineering and took 17 years and 11 million euros to complete. It opened on 5th September 1980 and was inaugurated by Swiss President Johann Schneider-Ammann, German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, French President, Francois Hollande and Italian Prime Minister Mateo Renzi.


1984

Trivia

The Space Shuttle Discovery Lands After Its Maiden Voyage

The STS-41-D was the 12th flight of the NASA’s Space shuttle program. It was launched on August 29th 1984 and landed back on earth six days later on 5th September 1984. The mission of the 6 members who manned the satellite was to deploy three commercial communication satellites and conduct many scientific experiments.


1986

Trivia

Pan Am Flight 73 Is Hijacked In Pakistan

Pan Am flight 73 from Bombay to New York had 2 stopovers, one in Karachi, the other in Frankfurt. But it never took off from Karachi, Pakistan, as Palestinian terrorists who wanted to fly to Israel hijacked it. Once the pilots realized terrorists were onboard, they grounded the plane by escaping, forcing the terrorists onboard to negotiate with authorities. Due to the courage and tranquil professionalism of the crew, only 22 of the 379 passengers and crew were killed, while150 were injured.


People Born This Day

John Cage
(1912-1992)
Composer, Writer [ American ]
Amy Beach
(1867-1944)
Pianist, Music Composer [ American ]
Arthur Koestler
(1905-1983)
[ Hungarian ]
Freddie Mercury
(1946-1991)
Singer-songwriter [ British ]
Jonathan Kozol
(1936-)
Educator & Non-Fiction Writer [ American ]
Werner Herzog
(1942-)
Actor, Director [ German ]
Bob Newhart
(1929-)
[ American ]
Jesse James
(1847-1882)
American Outlaw & Gang Leader [ American ]
Chris Morris
(1965-)
[ British ]
Michael Keaton
(1951-)
Actor [ American ]
Claudette Colvin
(1939-)
Civil Rights Activist [ American ]
Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
(0973-1048)
Scholar [ Iranian ]
Louis XIV of France
(1638-1715)
King of France [ French ]
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(1888-1975)
Confident, Ambitious [ Indian ]
Arnel Pineda
(1967-)
Singer & Songwriter [ Filipino ]
Paul Breitner
(1951-)
Former German Footballer [ German ]
Brittany Furlan
(1986-)
Viner [ American ]


Back to Top