3rd June In History

Acclaimed poet Victor Hugo once famously said, ‘What is history? An echo of the past in the future, a reflex from the future on the past’ Isn't it true that we have evolved from Neanderthals to social animals with the help of knowledge that we have gathered over several centuries? By learning from our past mistakes and improving, we left the wilderness behind and settled in well-planned civilizations. However, many a times, we humans have taken decisions of such catastrophic proportions that several civilizations have perished under its effect. Truly, the human being is capable of doing the impossible. Numerous stories of triumph and ruination are engraved in the pages of history. Let us delve into the realms of history and visit the bygone times to develop a better understanding of what has shaped our present. June 3rd is a date filled with many such episodes of glory as well as sorrow. It was on this day that emperors were dethroned by conspirators and the public rose in rebellion against their supreme leaders. Explorations of the new world led to new discoveries and path-breaking achievements in the field of science and technology. Battles were fought and justice was served. So without further ado tune in to know more about this eventful date in history!


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 3rd June



350

Politics

The Roman Usurper Nepotianus Became The Roman Emperor

On June 3rd, 350, Lulius Nepotianus declared his accession to the Roman throne. He forayed into the city of Rome with a troop of gladiators and together they revolted against Magnentius, a famous usurper. However, in less than a month, Nepotianus was killed by Magnentius' soldiers.


713

Politics

The Byzantine Emperor Philippicus Is Overthrown

The troops in the Opsikion administrative unit of the Byzantine Emperor rose in rebellion against their authoritarian ruler Philippicus. He was captured and his eyes were gouged out. The emperor was then dethroned and sent into exile on this day in 713.


1916

Politics

The National Defense Act Becomes Law

The ‘National Defense Act of 1916’ was recognized as a law on June 3rd, 1916. The law, which dealt with reorganization of the United States Army, compelled the National Guard reserve force to increase its strength to 450,000 personnel.


1968

Politics

Le Duc Tho Joins Negotiations In Paris

Several leaders tried to initiate peace talks to douse the growing tension between North and South Vietnam. Le Duc Tho, a North-Vietnamese Communist Party official, was a part of the peace talks organized in Paris by American diplomat Henry Kissinger. On June 3rd, 1968, he was appointed the special counselor of the negotiating team that would eventually end the Vietnam War.


1989

Politics

Riot At Tiananmen Square In China

The citizens of China began protesting against the increasingly authoritarian Communist regime in the country. It began by the occupation of the Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. Since protestors refused to bow down, the Government ordered the troops to use brute force to end the agitation. On June 3, the crackdown commenced, during which hundreds died and thousand others were imprisoned.


1990

Politics

Second Summit Meeting Between US And Soviet Union Concludes

The three-day talk between US President George H.W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev, the President of the Soviet Union, ended on June 3, 1990. The agenda of the summit was to reach an agreement on the fate of unification of Germany and independence of Lithuania. However, the parties failed to arrive at an affirmative conclusion on both the fronts.


1781

Wars

Jack Jouett Begins The Historic Midnight Ride During American Revolution

John Jack Jouett was a great hero of the American Revolution. He is remembered for the historic ride he undertook to warn the Governor of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson of an impending attack on the legislature by the British forces. The 27-year-old rode through the night on June 3, 1781, from Cuckoo Tavern to inform Jefferson that British Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton was leading an army to capture Virginia.


1861

Wars

American Civil War: Battle Of Philippi Was Fought

The Battle of Philippi was one of the unforgettable clashes between the Union and the Confederate troops, which occurred on June 3, 1861. The Union forces emerged victorious at the end of the battle as the untrained and unorganized Confederate troops failed to put up any resistance and fled. It was an important episode of the American civil war.


1864

Wars

American Civil War: Battle Of Cold Harbor Was Fought

On this day in 1864, the Union suffered heavy casualties at the hands of Confederates in the Battle of Cold Harbor. The secessionists responded with heavy firing as the abolitionists moved towards the enemy trenches, thus killing 7000 of them in an hour's time.


1940

Wars

World War II: The Germans Attack Paris

The Luftwaffe troops of Germany bombed the city of Paris on June 3, 1940. The attack targeted the civilian population, which included children, in a bid to create terror and deplete the French resources. More than 200 civilians lost their lives in the air raid.


1941

Wars

World War II: The Holocaust Of Kandanos

The unified forces of Nazi Germany, known as ‘Wehrmacht’, advanced to the Kandanos village of Greece on June 3, 1941. The Nazi soldiers wreaked havoc on the inhabitants and by nightfall, the entire village was in ashes. Nearly 180 residents were killed by the German troops.


1942

Wars

World War II: The Aleutian Islands Campaign By Japan Begins

The United States and Japan fought the Battle of Aleutian Islands, during WWII. On June 3, 1942, the Japanese Army attacked the U.S naval base at Dutch Harbor, thus beginning the campaign.


1943

Wars

Zoot Suit Riots

The Zoot Suits were a rage among the Mexican American youth during the 1940s. It was the time when WWII was being fought and several Mexicans had landed on the US soil to help in the war effort. The oversized suits were regarded as unpatriotic and it became the cause of tension between American soldiers and Mexican immigrants. The rift turned into a riot on this day in 1943. US servicemen and civilians targeted African-Americans and Filipinos irrespective of the fact that they were donning zoot suits or not.


1984

Wars

Operation Blue Star

Former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered Operation Blue Star on June 3, 1984 to capture Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. The latter was a leader of a Sikh religious group who was a major proponent of the Anadpur Resolution proposed by the Shiromani Akali Dal. Bhindranwale had taken refuge at the Harmandir Sahib Gurudwara in Amritsar and ran his campaign from the temple complex. The military operation conducted in order to gain control of the shrine, resulted in the death of as many as 5000 people, most of them civilians.


1862

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Riots At Wardsend Cemetery In Sheffield, England

The Victorian Wardsend Cemetery in Sheffield district of England witnessed a horrific riot on this day in 1862. A mob congregated at the cemetery demanding that Reverend John Livesey and Isaac Howard, a sexton, to explain their actions. It was rumored that the duo were selling the corpses to a medical school. The angry mob damaged the property. However, the allegations were later deemed as lies.


1963

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The Buddhist Crisis In South Vietnam

The Buddhist monks in South Vietnam led a nonviolent movement against the Catholic appeasing Government in 1963. Known as the Buddhist Crisis, several events of violent crackdown by the Government were reported during the period of political turmoil. One such disturbing incident occurred on June 3, when police and military attacked the praying monks with chemicals. 67 people received grave injuries and had to be hospitalized. The attacks were condemned by the United States and compelled them to rethink their attitude towards the authoritarian government of South Vietnam.


1969

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Melbourne–Evans Collision

On this day in 1969, United States Navy destroyer Frank E. Evans and Royal Australian Navy light aircraft carrier ‘HMAS Melbourne’ were involved in a fatal accident. The collision, which occurred during a ‘SEATO’ exercise in South Vietnam, resulted in the USN destroyer to be split in half, killing 74 crew members on board.


1973

Disasters & Natural Calamities

‘Tupolev Tu-144’ Crashes At The Paris Air Show

The Paris Air Show is one of the most awaited events in the field of aviation, which began as early as 1909. Since its inception, the show has been a grand affair and has been making headlines for ages. The year 1973, however, was not so fortunate, since a Soviet jet liner crashed on June 3rd, 1973. The accident claimed the lives of 14 and was the first time a supersonic passenger jet crashed.


1979

Disasters & Natural Calamities

‘Ixtoc I’ Oil Spill In The Southern Gulf Of Mexico

Pemex, a Mexican oil firm, undertook the mission to drill a 3 kilometer deep oil well in the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico. However, technical difficulties in the drilling rig caused an uncontrolled outflow of crude natural oil on June 3, 1979. It was estimated that as many as 30,000 barrels of oil were spilled per day, before mud was pumped into the well, thus, making it one of the largest oil spills in history.


1980

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The Grand Island Tornado Outbreak

On June 3, 1980, also remembered as 'The Night of the Twisters', as many as seven tornadoes hit the city of Grand Island in Nebraska. The deadly whirlwinds killed five and injured several hundreds. The loss of property was estimated at $300 million.


1989

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Natural Gas Explosion Kills 500 In Russia

The lethargic attitude of the pipeline workers in the town of Ufa in USSR caused a deadly explosion on June 3rd, 1989. The intensity of the explosion incinerated hundreds of trees in the neighborhood and derailed the coaches of two approaching trains, leading to 500 casualties.


1991

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Mount Unzen Erupts In Japan

A team of researchers and journalists, including renowned volcano photographers Maurice and Katja Krafft as well as geologist Harry Glicken, were visiting Mount Unzen in Japan, when an unexpected volcanic eruption claimed their lives. A total of 43 people lost their lives in this catastrophe as lava flowed into a region where human entry had not been prohibited.


2012

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Nigeria Plane Crash

A Dana Airlines passenger aircraft crashed into a highly populated neighborhood in Nigeria on June 3, 2012. The accident resulted in death of all the passengers travelling in the ill-fated plane.


2013

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Poultry Farm Fire In Jilin Province In Northeastern China

Fire ravaged a poultry processing farm in northeastern Chinese province of Jilin on this day in 2013. Many workers were trapped inside the plant which had just a single exit point. The devastating flames claimed 119 lives and it’s considered one of China’s most tragic events to occur in recent times.


1937

Sports

Josh Gibson Historic Home Run Hit

‘Homestead Grays’ catcher Josh Gibson created history on 3rd June, 1937, when he hit a ball 580 feet at the Yankee Stadium. His home run hit was a feat which is remembered by Baseball fans even now. The achievement was easily overshadowed the legendary Mickey Mantle's 565-feet hit.


1888

Literature & Entertainment

‘Casey At The Bat’ Is Published

Acclaimed writer Ernest Lawrence Thayer's famous poem ‘Casey at the Bat: A Ballad of the Republic Sung in the Year 1888’ first appeared in 'The San Francisco Examiner' on June 3rd, 1888. The literary piece revolved around the game of baseball and has ever since become one of the most popular poems written in English language.


1956

Literature & Entertainment

Thumbs Down For Rock And Roll Music

Rock and Roll was an evolving music form in the 1950s and while the younger generation grooved happily to the accentuated backbeat, the elderly had second thoughts about accepting this new genre. The result was a cultural conflict. The Californian city of Santa Cruz banned rock and roll music in public on June 3, 1956. The reason behind the ban was ‘Detrimental to both the health and morals of our youth and community’.


1140

Trivia

Peter Abelard Is Found Guilty Of Heresy

Renowned theologian Peter Abelard was best known for his rational interpretation of the Trinity. However, he drew a lot of flak for this work of his. On June 3, 1140, he was charged of heresy for publishing ‘Theologia Summi Boni’, a compilation of his lectures.


1326

Trivia

The Treaty Of Novgorod Is Signed

Norway and Russia were in a state of conflict over the issue of ownership of Finnmark. The two parties made peace by signing the Treaty of Novogorod and thus, ended a decade old dispute.


1539

Trivia

Hernando De Soto Claims Florida For Spain

Hernando De Soto was a Spanish explorer who embarked on an ambitious mission to conquer Florida. On June 3, 1539, he was finally successful after charting 4,000 miles and battling native Americans.


1972

Trivia

Irish Street March Takes A Bloody Turn

The year 1972 witnessed bloodshed like none other during the era of Troubles in Ireland. On June 3rd, a mob of 10,000 people marched from Irish Street to express their objection against the declaration of 'no-go' areas in Londonderry. Trouble began when military troops used rubber bullets and water cannons, in response to the bottles and stones thrown at them by the mob.


1621

Trivia

A Guideline For The Dutch West India Company

The Republic of Sven United, Netherlands, granted a charter to the Dutch West India Company. According to this, the firm could trade in West Africa and Americas and oversee the slave trade in the Atlantic, Brazil and Caribbean.


1800

Trivia

President John Adams Starts Residing In The New Capital

The city of Washington became the capital of the United States in 1790, a title previously held by Philadelphia. John Adams was the first President who occupied the White House. On June 3, 1800, he shifted base to Washington and resided in a temporary accommodation, until the executive mansion was fully constructed.


1839

Trivia

The Cause Of The First Opium War

Chinese Special Imperial Commissioner Lin Zexu confiscated and destroyed 1.2 million kilos of Opium belonging to British merchants on June 3, 1839 in Humen. The move which came in a bid to curb drug trade in the country, laid the foundation for the First Opium War.


1866

Trivia

The Fenians Are Driven Out Of Fort Erie

The Fenian brotherhood fought to end British dominion of Ireland between 1866 and 1871. In June 1866, the Fenians, who were holding lines at Fort Erie, in Ontario, were defeated and had to flee. They arrived at Buffalo on June 3, 1866, where they eventually surrendered before the American navy.


1889

Trivia

The Rail Route Of Maine Is Completed

The Canadian Pacific Railways undertook the construction of the historic International railway of Maine. This railway line, which was completed on June 3, 1889, connected the cities of Montreal and Saint John, New Brunswick, thus providing means of transportation across the Atlantic. The completion of this rail route helped CPR become the first trans-Atlantic railway service.


1889

Trivia

The First Long-Distance Electric Power Transmission

June 3, 1889, marked the beginning of a ground-breaking development in the field of electrical transmission. A generator located at the Willamette Falls produced electricity that was transmitted over power transmission cables to Portland, Oregon. The transmission spanned over a distance of 23 kilometers. This was the first time electrical power was transmitted over such a long distance.


1935

Trivia

Protest Trek To Ottawa Begins

As the Great Depression deepened its claws, crippling economies, citizens of Canada began protesting against the Government. This protest, which started on a small scale in Vancouver, soon turned into a nationwide movement. On June 3, 1935, as many as thousand people boarded freight trains and began what would be known as the 'On To Ottawa Trek'.


1937

Trivia

The Duke Of Windsor Marries Wallis Simpson

King Edward VIII, a famous monarch associated with Great Britain and Northern Ireland, stepped down from the throne for the love of his life. Wallis Warfield was an American national and divorcee and abdicating the throne was the only way the King could have stayed with her. On June 3, 1937, the love-struck couple exchanged nuptial vows.


1950

Trivia

Maurice Herzog And Louis Lachenal Scale The Summit Of Annapurna

The French mountaineer Maurice Herzog scaled the peak of Himalayan mountain Annapurna I on this day in 1950. He climbed the gigantic peak, which is almost 8000 meters high, with mountain guide Louis Lachenal. Surprisingly, duo succeeded in their first attempt.


1957

Trivia

Du Pont Loses The General Motors Suit

The U.S. Justice Department filed a lawsuit against ‘E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.’, the chemical firm, which was the largest stockholder in ‘General Motors’. The charges levied against Du Pont were that the chemical giant monopolized the sales of automotive finishes and textiles with the help of its association with ‘General Motors’. On June 3, 1957, the Supreme Court gave its verdict on the case and it ordered Du Pont to give up its controlling shares in the automaker company.


1962

Trivia

Air France Flight 007 Overruns, The Runway Explodes

On this day in 1962, an Air France Flight exploded during take-off killing 122 passengers and 10 flight crew, at ‘Paris Orly Airport’. Technical difficulties forced pilot to abort take off despite having exceeded the threshold speed beyond which it could be fatal trying to terminate. The Boeing 707 ran off the runway and a fire in the left undercarriage caused the explosion.


1965

Trivia

Ed White Performs The First American Spacewalk

Ed White became the first American to conduct a spacewalk on June 3, 1965. He was a part of the NASA's Gemini 4 mission when he opened the hatch and began the 23 -minute walk over the Pacific Ocean.


1968

Trivia

Valerie Solanas Shoots Andy Warhol

Feminist and writer Valerie Solanas fired shots at Andy Warhol with the intent of killing him on this day in 1968. She believed that the latter was trying to steal her work and hence took the radical step.


1982

Trivia

The Israeli Ambassador To The United KingdomIs Shot

The Israeli ambassador to Britain, Shlomo Argov, was shot on this day in 1982. The diplomat was attending an event at the Dorchester Hotel in Mayfair, and he was shot by a gunman who possessed a machine pistol as Shlomo was exiting. He was rushed to the hospital and he survived but the incident left him permanently paralyzed.


1970

Trivia

Cambodian Operation During Vietnam A Success, Says POTUS

The Cambodian Operation of the Vietnam War was deemed a success by the United States. President Richard Nixon gave an elaborate speech on June 3, 1970, describing the joint efforts of US and South Vietnamese troops as a triumph.


1991

Trivia

Soldiers Of Irish Army Killed

The British soldiers killed three members of the Irish Republican Army in an encounter on June 3, 1991. The Red Coats obtained intelligence and acted swiftly to ambush the vehicle used by the IRA gunmen, in Coagh in County Tyrone.


2010

Trivia

Van Der Sloot Arrested For Murder

Suspect in the unsolved Natalee Holloway disappearance case, Van Der Sloot was arrested in South America, in connection to another crime, on June 3 in 2010. He was charged with the murder of Stephany Flores, in Peru. Sloot later confessed and pleaded guilty.


2012

Trivia

Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant Takes Place

On June 3, 2012, the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant was organized as a part of the ongoing Diamond Jubilee celebrations of Queen Elizabeth's 60th anniversary of accession to throne. 670 boats participated in the parade that was hosted at the River Thames.


2013

Trivia

The Trial Of United States Army Private Chelsea Manning Begins In Fort Meade, Maryland

Bradley E. Manning was a United States Army Private who was charged with leaking classified information to ‘Wikileaks’. The court-martial began on June 3, 2013 and 22 allegations were made against Manning.


People Born This Day

Raul Castro
(1931-)
President of the Council of State of Cuba [ Cuban ]
Allen Ginsberg
(1926-1997)
Poet [ American ]
Charles R. Drew
(1904-1950)
Physician & Surgeon [ American ]
Anderson Cooper
(1967-)
Journalist [ American ]
Jefferson Davis
(1808-1889)
Former President of the Confederate States of America [ American ]
Larry McMurtry
(1936-)
Novelist [ American ]
Josephine Baker
(1906-1975)
Dancer [ French ]
Rafael Nadal
(1986-)
Tennis player [ Spanish ]
Paulette Goddard
(1910-1990)
Film actress [ American ]
Tony Curtis
(1925-2010)
Film actor [ American ]
Garret Hobart
(1844-1899)
24th Vice President of the U.S.A [ American ]
Werner Arber
(1929-)
Microbiologist & Geneticist [ Swiss ]
Torsten Wiesel
(1924-)
Neurophysiologist [ Swedish ]
Lukas Rieger
(1999-)
Musical.ly star [ German ]
Logan Fabbro
(1998-)
Actress, Dancer [ Canadian ]


People Died This Day

Ayatollah Khomeini
(1902-1989)
Led the Famous Iranian Revolution in 1979 [ Iranian ]
Franz Kafka
(1883-1924)
Novelist [ Austrian ]
Merton H. Miller
(1923-2000)
Economist [ American ]
Georges Bizet
(1838-1875)
Composer [ French ]
William Harvey
(1578-1657)
Physician [ British ]
Muhammad Ali
(1942-2016)
[ American ]
William E. Simon
(1927-2000)
Businessman, Philanthropist [ American ]
Jack Kevorkian
(1928-2011)
[ American ]
Anthony Quinn
(1915-2001)
Actor [ Mexican ]
Pope John XXIII
(1881-1963)
[ Italian ]
Stephen Douglas
(1813-1861)
The Designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act [ American ]
Karl Herzfeld
(1892-1978)
Physicist [ Austrian ]
Robert Noyce
(1927-1990)
Co-inventor of the integrated circuit [ American ]
Max Volmer
(1885-1965)
Chemist [ German ]
Archibald Hill
(1886-1977)
Physiologist [ British ]
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