30th July In History

The penultimate day of Julius Caesar’s month has witnessed some remarkable events throughout the course of time. Some of them were etched in glory, some in gore. While some are enduring odes to the spirit of humanity; others are incriminating testimonies to the notion that we are a damned lot. Like few of them marked the end of an era there were also incidents that heralded a new beginning. On one hand if there were revolutionary advancements there were also regressive outrages. There were acts of courage and nobility, counterbalanced by acts of coward and malice. In a sense, that’s what history is all about: an account of a species struggling to claw its way through darkness to light, often faltering, yet finding the heart to persist. In this chronicle for July 30, we come across bloody racial riots, genocides, disasters and coups; but as always, there are silver linings – there are counterpoints of goodness and hope. We come across human rights eventually winning over blind faith in Ireland; a small island nation gaining its rightful independence from the power-hungry colonists. A corrupt head of state brought to his knees by a society that has not lost its moral compass; pioneers breaching frontiers hitherto unexplored. Read on!


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 30th July



1974

Politics

The House Judiciary Passes Three Articles Of Impeachment Against Nixon

The ‘Watergate Scandal’ and the resignation of Richard Nixon created an unprecedented tumult that shook the nation of USA to its foundations. On this day in 1974, the House Judiciary passed the third and final impeachment article against Nixon. Ten days later, on August 9, 1974, Nixon became the first President to resign from office.


1975

Politics

The Disappearance Of Teamsters President Jimmy Hoffa

Controversy followed labor union leader Jimmy Hoffa throughout his stint as the Teamsters leader, but his disappearance continues to be a mind-boggling mystery to this day. Hoffa was last seen outside a Red Fox Restaurant in Detroit, and conspiracy theories of all sorts were broached and discarded. Seven years later, he was legally declared dead, but the curiosity surrounding this vanishing act earned Hoffa a place in pop-culture.


1975

Politics

The Helsinki Accords

The Cold War era was dangerously volatile, with the threat of a third world war looming large. A number of international summits were held and peace treaties were signed to avoid the disastrous eventuality of another war. The Helsinki Conference started on this day in 1975, with a view to reduce the simmering tension and reinstate peaceful relations between the Communist bloc and the West.


1980

Politics

Vanuatu Gains Independence

The colonial name for the island nation of Vanuatu was New Hebrides. The former British-French Condominium gained independence on this day in 1980, marking the beginning of a new era in the archipelago of 83 islands.


1990

Politics

Over 600 Killed In A Gruesome Massacre In A Liberian Church

Around 600,000 people were killed during the First Liberian Civil War that lasted from 1989 to 1997. On this day in 1990, a gruesome massacre was perpetrated in a Monrovian Church by the Liberian troops, killing 300 refugees – most of them women and children.


1997

Politics

14 Killed In The Mahane Yehuda Market Bombings In Jerusalem

Jerusalem’s Mahane Yehuda Market is a popular open-air market that draws tourists and locals alike. Disaster struck on this day in 1997, when two Hamas suicide bombers set off an explosion that killed 14 civilians and injured several.


2002

Politics

Enactment Of ‘The Sarbanes-Oxley Act’

In the wake of a slew of sensational corporate scandals, the Bush administration introduced the ‘Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act’ to crack down such fraudulent practices. The Act received overwhelming approval at the House and was signed into law on this day, in 2001, with the President hailing it as “the most far reaching reforms of American business practices since the time of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.”


2013

Politics

Ireland President Signs The Country’s First Bill On Abortion Into Law

The death of Savita Halappanavar due to pregnancy complications and the hospital’s refusal to terminate the pregnancy had caused a major public outrage and drawn attention to the ambiguous nature of Irish abortion laws. On July 30th, 2013, President Michael Higgins signed the bill legalizing abortion in certain circumstances. The legislation was met with staunch opposition from conservative Catholics, but an overwhelming majority came in favor of the new law.


1419

Politics

First Defenestration Of Prague

The execution of the philosopher Jan Hus in 1415 led to a series of uprisings that eventually culminated in the Bohemian Wars. The event that ultimately triggered the war was the defenestration of city council members on July 30th, 1419, by an angry mob of Hussite peasants. The Protestant faction was fuelled by their growing discontent over the monopoly of Roman Catholic nobility.


1619

Politics

The House Of Burgesses Convenes Its First Meeting In Virginia

The first session of the House of Burgesses held on this day in 1619 was a landmark event in the history of North America. The political body was the first democratically elected legislative assembly in the country. Convened in Virginia, the 22-member assembly mainly focused on settling disputes among the colonists, formulating trade laws and establishing ground rules regarding social conduct.


1729

Politics

The City Of Baltimore Founded

Baltimore is often hailed as ‘The Monumental City’, for the large number of public monuments enriching the cityscape. The city was founded on this day in 1729, and named after Lord Baltimore, the first governor of Maryland, US.


1733

Politics

The Freemasons Open Their First American Lodge In Boston

The Masonic Fraternity is one of the oldest organizations in the world, and continues to be relevant even in modern times. The first masonic lodge on the North American soil was constituted at the famous ‘Bunch of Grapes’ tavern in Boston, in 1733. Within a few years of its establishment, Freemasonry became popular in America, attracting illustrious adherents like George Washington and Benjamin Franklin.


1863

Politics

Lincoln Issues ‘The Eye-For-Eye Order’

In the height of American Civil War, the rebelling Confederates started the selective persecution of African-Americans in the Union Army, forcing President Lincoln to issue a retaliatory order. The ‘Eye-for-Eye order’ warned the Confederates of severe consequences for their racist behavior and was somewhat effective, but proved futile in the long run.


1863

Politics

The Box Elder Treaty

The simmering tension between Native American Shoshones and the US government led to much bloodshed and violence - the Bear River Massacre being the most gruesome of all. The first concrete effort to reinstate peace came about six months after the massacre, in the form of ‘The Box Elder Treaty’. Both the parties came to an accord on pertinent issues like territorial boundaries and annuity, but ultimately, the Shoshones were shortchanged by certain terms of agreement.


1866

Politics

New Orleans Riot

Rampant discrimination and racial tension ravaged the country in the Post-Civil War era. The enactment of Black Codes and the denial of suffrage rights to African Americans furthered the divide. On this day, during the Louisiana Convention in 1866, a group of White supremacists attacked protesting African Americans outside the Mechanics Institute in New Orleans. Around forty African Americans were killed, and martial laws were enforced to curb the violence. The riot was instrumental in ensuring Republican Party’s landslide victory in the elections that followed.


1942

Politics

The ‘WAVES’ Becomes A Part Of US Navy

Women all over the world were actively involved in various capacities with the Second World War. On July 30th, 1942, the US Navy made history when it incorporated a new division called ‘WAVES’ (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) at a time when the idea of enlisting women was frowned upon. Prominent academic Mildred H. McAfee became the first director of WAVES, and by the end of the war, around 80,000 women were serving in the force.


1949

Politics

The Yangtze Incident Draws To A Climax

The Chinese Civil War is strewn with numerous episodes that are equally dramatic and gory, but the entrapment and escape of the British Royal Navy ship, ‘HMS Amethyst’, deserves a special mention. The ship, which was stationed in Yangtze River as a guard ship, came under heavy firing on April 20, 1949. What followed was nearly hundred days of dreadful suspense over the fate of the British crew stranded in the war-torn shores. On this day in 1949, HMS Amethyst dared all the odds and escaped the hostile Chinese shores amidst much drama.


1956

Politics

“In God We Trust” Becomes The Official Motto Of The US

Besides being the national anthem of America, Francis Scott Key’s ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’ also gave the country its official motto, “In God We Trust”. The legislation for adopting the phrase as the official motto was signed on this day in 1956 by the then US President, Dwight Eisenhower.


1965

Politics

Johnson Signs Medicare Into Law

In 1945, former politician Harry S. Truman proposed the idea of a national health insurance program, but the proposal ultimately got rejected by the Congress. It wasn’t until 1965 that Truman’s vision was realized, by the then U.S President, Lyndon B. Johnson. Fittingly, the bill was signed on this day, at the Truman Library and the former President was enrolled as the first beneficiary of the Medicare program.


1967

Politics

Race Riots In Milwaukee

The summer of 1967 was notorious for the series of racial riots that erupted across North America. On this day in the ‘Long Hot Summer of 1967’, Milwaukee descended into a state of chaos and violence that lasted for days, resulting in four deaths, thousands of arrests and the imposition of curfew.


1968

Politics

Saddam Hussein’s ‘Ba’ath Party’ Seizes Power In Iraq

The final chapter in the bloodless revolution of 1968 unfolded on this day in Iraq, when Saddam Hussein’s ‘Ba’ath party’ overcame the last hurdle on its way to power. In a follow-up to the July 17 coup, Hussein and his cohorts forced enemy-turned-ally, an-Nayif, into exile. With the last of impediments cleared up, the ‘Ba’ath Party’ went on to seize complete control of Iraq.


1969

Politics

Nixon Travels To Southern Vietnam

Renowned politician Richard Nixon’s first overseas trip as a President was named ‘Moonglow’ in honor of Apollo Eleven’s moon landing. In the course of his round-the-world trip, Nixon made a surprise visit to Vietnam on this day in 1969, making him the first President since Roosevelt to visit an active war zone.


1656

Wars

Battle Of Warsaw Ends With Sweden Prevailing Over Poland

The Battle of Warsaw was yet another brief yet bloody chapter in the annals of ‘The Deluge’ – a period of constant warring between Poland and Sweden. The three-day battle ended on this day in 1656, with Sweden prevailing over Poland.


1915

Wars

The German Offensive At Hooge

Hooge, a little Belgian village, was a hotspot during the First World War, bearing the brunt of a sustained battle between the Allies and Germans. On this day in 1915, the Germans launched an offensive that involved flame-throwers and the British troops were caught off guard by the new warfare technique. Following the British retreat, the ‘Daily Chronicle’ dubbed the attack as ‘The Flame Fight’.


1916

Wars

The Black Tom Explosion In New Jersey Leaves 7 Dead

Prior to its entry in World War I, America’s role was very much restricted to supplying arms and ammunitions to the warring nations. This was however not without repercussions. On this day in 1916, a series of powerful explosions rocked the Black Tom Island, killing seven and injuring several others. Subsequent investigations proved that the explosions were orchestrated by Germans in a bid to sabotage the transport of a large cache of ammunitions to Allied forces.


1945

Wars

The ‘USS Indianapolis’ Torpedoed By A Japanese Submarine

The worst disaster in the history of the U.S Navy happened on this day in 1945, when the ‘USS Indianapolis’ was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine, ‘I-58’. Of the 1196 crewmen, only 317 survived. Before she sank, however, the ‘USS Indianapolis’ completed her last mission, delivering the atomic bomb that would later wreak havoc in Hiroshima.


1626

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Devastating Earthquake In Naples Leaves 70000 Dead

Situated between two active volcanic regions, Naples has always been a geological hotspot. A major earthquake struck the Italian city on this day in 1626, leaving 70,000 dead.


1971

Disasters & Natural Calamities

162 Killed In A Mid-Air Collision Between A Boeing 727 And An F-86

In one of the worst accidents in aviation history, a ‘Boeing 727’, traveling from Sapporo to Tokyo, was hit by a fighter jet, killing all 162 on board. The pilot of the fighter jet, who ejected safely before the crash, would later face charges of involuntary manslaughter.


2001

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Typhoon Toraji Hits Taiwan And China

Toraji was one of the many typhoons that hit Taiwan during the Pacific typhoon phase of 2001. This storm, which occurred on July 30th, claimed numerous lives and caused landfalls, following which, there was a reforestation drive to prevent further damages.


1930

Sports

Uruguay Wins The First Edition Of FIFA World Cup

The first edition of the ‘FIFA’ world cup was hosted and won by Uruguay in 1930. In the finals, held on this day, Uruguay defeated Argentina by a margin of 4-2, despite trailing in the first half.


1932

Sports

The 10th Summer Olympics Opens In Los Angeles

The United States hosted the tenth edition of Olympics, which opened on this day in 1932. The participation was much lower due to the Great Depression, and the U.S topped the medals table with a tally of 103 medals, including 41 golds.


1966

Sports

Maiden FIFA World Cup Triumph For England

The crowning glory of English football came on this day in 1966, when the ‘wingless wonders’ beat West Germany by a margin of 4-2 in a highly controversial final match. Another highlight of the game was Geoff Hurst’s hat-trick, the first one ever scored in a world cup final match.


1976

Sports

Bruce Jenner Wins Decathlon

The present generation is largely oblivious to the past of reality TV star Caitlyn Jenner, whose gender transition created quite the storm in recent times. Back in 1976, before the transition, Bruce Jenner made history when he won the gold in decathlon at the 1976 Olympics on this day.


1990

Sports

George Steinbrenner Gets Banned From Baseball

Controversy’s favorite child, the flamboyant George Steinbrenner, often made news for all the wrong reasons. One such instance was when he was banned for life from the game in 1990. The ban followed the allegations that the ‘Yankees ‘manager had paid a gambler to ‘dig up some dirt’ on the star outfielder Dave Winfield.


1992

Sports

Shannon Miller Wins The Silver Medal At The Barcelona Olympics

The 1992 Olympics in Barcelona witnessed the rise of a 14-year old American prodigy, Shannon Miller. Miller won the silver medal in Women’s All-Round Gymnastics, on this day in 1992, losing by the narrowest of margins to Ukrainian gymnast, Tatiana Gutsu. To this day, Miller remains the most decorated American gymnast in history.


1996

Sports

U.S Wins Its First Olympic Gold Medal In Softball

Softball was introduced as an Olympic sport for the first time in the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. The US Women’s Softball team had its moment in the sun when it defeated China to clinch the gold medal on this day, the same year.


2004

Sports

Mike Tyson Loses His Penultimate Fight

The high-profile fight hosted on this day in 2004 between Mike Tyson and Danny Williams, dubbed as “Return for Revenge”. It was Tyson’s penultimate appearance in the ring. Williams pulled off a sensational upset when he knocked out Tyson in the fourth round, signaling the end of one of the most celebrated athletic careers.


1928

Literature & Entertainment

George Eastman Gives The First Demonstration Of Motion Pictures

George Eastman was an innovator who played a pioneering role in the evolution of photography as a mainstream visual art. On this day in 1928, Eastman demonstrated the process behind Colour Motion Pictures to Thomas Edison and other eminent scientists of the time. Eastman’s Kodak color Process was revolutionary in its times, ultimately paving way for the major technological advancements that were to follow.


1932

Literature & Entertainment

Premiere Of Disney’s ‘Flowers And Trees’, The First Technicolor Cartoon

Disney’s 1932 cartoon short, ‘Flowers and Trees’, was groundbreaking on many levels. The eight-minute film earned Walt Disney his first Academy Award – the first of many to come. ‘Flowers and Trees’ was released on this day in 1932 to much acclaim.


1935

Literature & Entertainment

First ‘Penguin’ Book Is Published, Sparks The Paperback Revolution

When ‘Penguin Books’ founder Allen Lane first proposed the idea of making popular classics accessible to the public at the price of a pack of cigarettes, he had more detractors than supporters. It was only a matter of time before Lane proved the sceptics wrong. The first set of Penguin books - now known as the “Original 10” - was published on this day in 1935, ushering in a paperback revolution.


1966

Literature & Entertainment

The Beatles Album, ‘Yesterday And Today’, Tops The Charts

‘Yesterday and Today’ is probably remembered for its infamous ‘butcher cover’. The cover image, featuring the band holding severed baby dolls, created much furor back in the day. But that didn’t stop the album from topping the charts on July 30th, 1966, and retaining its number one status for five weeks.


1968

Literature & Entertainment

The Beatles’ ‘Apple Boutique’ Closes

London’s Baker Street is famous for housing the world’s greatest fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes. But that’s not all. The street was home to The Beatles’ venture, ‘Apple Boutique’, which sank just eight months since its inception and was shut down on this day in 1968


2006

Literature & Entertainment

World’s Longest Running Music Show Airs Its Final Episode

‘Top of the Pops’ debuted on ‘BBC’ in 1964 and was aired for 42 years – a staggering record that sets the show in a league of its own in terms of longevity. By the time the final episode of this acclaimed show was aired, on July 30th, 2006, it had long lost its popularity. However, the Christmas Special one-off episode continues till this date.


1836

Trivia

Publication Of The First English Newspaper In Hawaii

‘Sandwich Island Gazette’, the first English newspaper, printed and published in Hawaii, became a part of the island nation’s history on this day in 1836. Sporadically published and circulated in limited circles, the newspaper went out of print in 1839.


1844

Trivia

Establishment Of ‘The New York Yacht Club’

‘The New York Yacht Club’ was the first of its kind in America. On this day in 1844, a group of nine Yachting enthusiasts, headed by John Cox Stevens, founded the ‘NYYC’. Stevens went on to become the first Commodore of the club. The ‘NYYC’ continued for many more years with the long-standing tradition of hosting a number of racing and cruising events annually.


1909

Trivia

‘The Wright Military Flyer’ Successfully Completes Its Final Test

On this day in 1909, the world’s first military airplane, ‘The Wright Military Flyer’, completed its final round of test flights, before being acquired by the U.S Army. The Army purchased it from the Wright Brothers for $30,000, inclusive of the $5,000 bonus for exceeding the 40 miles per hour mark. The model is currently in display at The Smithsonian Museum.


1962

Trivia

Trans-Canada Highway Is Officially Opened

Stretching over 8,000 kilometers, the Trans-Canada Highway is one among the longest highways in the world, along with Russia’s Trans-Siberian Highway and Highway 1 in Australia. The highway was officially opened on this day in 1962, though it took another nine years to complete the project.


1971

Trivia

‘Apollo 15’ Lands On The Moon

The fourth manned mission to land on the Moon, ‘Apollo 15’ was also the first to carry a lunar roving vehicle that could carry two astronauts. The crew landed on Moon on this day in 1971 and was hailed as the most successful manned flight ever in terms of achievements upon its completion.


1987

Trivia

‘Microsoft’ Acquires ‘Forethought’, The Developers Of ‘PowerPoint’

The archetype of ‘MS PowerPoint’ was the brainchild of a firm named ‘Forethought’, which ‘Microsoft’ acquired on this day in 1987. The $14 million acquisition was the largest since Microsoft’s humble beginning in 1975.


2003

Trivia

El Rey, The Last Vintage ‘Volkswagen Beetle’, Rolls Off The Assembly Line

The ‘Beetle’, a product of the renowned car manufacturer ‘Volkswagen’ has a place of its own in the automotive history. The last edition of the fourth most popular car of the 20th century was rolled out of the assembly line on this day in 2003. This development happened sixty-five years after it first hit the market in 1938.


People Born This Day

Henry Ford
(1863-1947)
Businessman [ American ]
Arnold Schwarzenegger
(1947-)
Former Governor of California [ Austrian ]
Casey Stengel
(1890-1975)
[ American ]
Emily Brontë
(1818-1848)
Novelist [ British ]
Lisa Kudrow
(1963-)
Actress [ American ]
Hilary Swank
(1974-)
[ American ]
Buddy Guy
(1936-)
[ American ]
Henry Moore
(1898-1986)
[ British ]
Kate Bush
(1958-)
[ British ]
Smedley Butler
(1881-1940)
[ American ]
Alton Brown
(1962-)
TV Personality, Celebrity Chef, Author [ American ]
Giorgio Vasari
(1511-1574)
Painter, Architect [ Italian ]
Jürgen Klinsmann
(1964-)
Football Player [ German ]
Patrick Modiano
(1945-)
French Novelist [ French ]
Paul Anka
(1941-)
Singer, Songwriter [ Canadian ]
Daley Thompson
(1958-)
Decathlete [ British ]
Hope Solo
(1981-)
Football Player [ American ]
Yvonne Strahovski
(1982-)
Actress [ Australian ]
Lyric MichellRagston
(2000-)
Rapper, Dancer, YouTube Star, Social Media Personality [ American ]
Gina Rodriguez
(1984-)
Actress [ American ]
Laurence Fishburne
(1961-)
Actor [ American ]
GloZell Green
(1972-)
YouTuber, Comedian [ American ]
Jaime Pressly
(1977-)
Actress, Model [ American ]
Holly Peers
(1987-)
Model [ British ]


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