The penultimate day of Julius Caesar’s month has witnessed some remarkable events throughout the course of time. Some of them were etched in glory, some in gore. While some are enduring odes to the spirit of humanity; others are incriminating testimonies to the notion that we are a damned lot. Like few of them marked the end of an era there were also incidents that heralded a new beginning. On one hand if there were revolutionary advancements there were also regressive outrages. There were acts of courage and nobility, counterbalanced by acts of coward and malice. In a sense, that’s what history is all about: an account of a species struggling to claw its way through darkness to light, often faltering, yet finding the heart to persist. In this chronicle for July 30, we come across bloody racial riots, genocides, disasters and coups; but as always, there are silver linings – there are counterpoints of goodness and hope. We come across human rights eventually winning over blind faith in Ireland; a small island nation gaining its rightful independence from the power-hungry colonists. A corrupt head of state brought to his knees by a society that has not lost its moral compass; pioneers breaching frontiers hitherto unexplored. Read on!