2nd September In History

Political events of immense historical importance abound the second day of September. The most significant being the signing of Instrument of Surrender by Japan, which brought an end to World War II in 1945. On this day the United States Treasury Department and the Fatherland Party in Germany were formed. Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh announced the independence of Vietnam from France; while in1960, the first democratically elected Tibetan parliamentarians were administered oath of office by the Dalai Lama. In America the National Defense Education Act was made into law in 1958 to meet the educational demands of national security. In an exemplary feat, 64-year-old long distance swimmer Diana Nyad from America became the first person to swim across the Strait of Florida from Cuba without a shark cage for protection. Setting a new benchmark, the first non-stop airplane flight from Europe to the United States was completed on this day in 1930 in the Question Mark plane. Quality education got a fillip when the University of Oslo was established in 1811and the Oberlin College in Ohio 22 years later. American playwright and Nobel laureate Eugene O’Neill’s play ‘The Iceman Cometh’ premiered on this very day at the Martin Beck Theater in Manhattan.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 2nd September



1192

Politics

Treaty Of Jaffa Is Signed

The Treaty of Jaffa was signed between Richard I of England and the Muslim military and political leader Saladin on 2nd September 1192. The treaty gave Franks authority over the coast from Acre to Jaffa and also permitted access to Jerusalem to the pilgrims.


1649

Politics

The City Of Castro Is Destroyed

The city of Castro in Italy was completely destroyed on 2nd September in 1649. The conflict broke out after Pope Innocent X wished to appoint a new Bishop in Castro without the assent of Duke of Parma. The duke’s men killed the bishop which resulted in the destruction of the city.


1789

Politics

United States Treasury Department Is Set Up

On 2nd September 1789 the American Congress established the United States Treasury Department. The idea was conceived in 1775 when the need to fund the Revolutionary War was felt by American leaders.


1792

Politics

September Massacres Take Place In Paris

On 2nd September 1792 Paris saw mass killing of prisoners, which came to be known as September Massacres and the First Terror of the French Revolution. The September massacres unfolded between 2–7 September 1792 in Paris and other cities. The massacres were an attempt by the people in Paris to suppress political prisoners who planned to support a counterrevolutionary plot.


1917

Politics

Fatherland Party Is Formed In Germany

Germany’s militarist conservatives formed a new political party called the Vaterlandspartei or Fatherland Party on this day in 1917. This showed the control the army exercised over all spheres of German society during the First World War.


1945

Politics

Vietnam Declares Its Independence

It was on this day in 1945 that Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh announced the independence of Vietnam from France. Immediately after the surrender of Japan to the allies, Ho Chi Minh declared independence of Vietnam.


1947

Politics

Inter-American Treaty Of Reciprocal Assistance Is Adopted

The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance was adopted at the Conference for Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security of the Organization of American States in Rio de Janeiro on 2nd September 1947. The treaty aimed at consolidating and strengthening ties between the nations of the Americas.


1957

Politics

Republic Of Vietnam President Visits Australia

Ngo Dinh Diem began his Australia visit on 2 September 1957 during the height of the Cold War. The visit, which lasted till 9thSeptember, was an official visit by the first president of the Republic of Vietnam.


1958

Politics

National Defense Education Act Is Signed

United States president Dwight D Eisenhover signed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA), making it law on 2nd September, 1958. The law gave funding to ramp up American schools and to promote postsecondary education so that the demands of national security are met.


1960

Politics

First Tibetan Parliamentarians Take Oath Of Office

On 2nd September 1960, the first democratically elected Tibetan parliamentarians were given oath of office by the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama also circulated a draft democratic constitution, which was taken up by the Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies for discussion.


1990

Politics

Transnistria Declares Itself A Soviet Republic

On this day in 1990 Transnistria unilaterally declared itself a Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. The then Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev dismissed the move as null and void.


1993

Politics

U.S Partners With Russia For International Space Station

In 1993, President Bill Clinton’s government announced that the United States and Russia will co-operate to build an international space station (ISS). The United States agreed to pay $400 million over four years for Russian space hardware and other services.


31

Wars

Roman Leader Octavian Wins Battle Of Actium

Roman leader Octavian defeated the army of Roman Mark Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt in the Battle of Actium in 31BC. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt before the last defeat and committed suicide the next year.


1775

Wars

Naval Vessel Hannah Is Commissioned

On 2nd September 1775 General George Washington commissioned Nicolson Broughton to take charge of the naval vessel Hannah to attack British transports. The vessel was the first armed naval vessel of the American Revolution and is said to be the founding vessel of the American navy.


1862

Wars

Lincoln Restores Union General George B. McClellan

In 1862, American president Abraham Lincoln reinstated Union General George B. McClellan to complete command after General John Pope failed at the Second Battle of Bull Run. McClellan combined Pope’s three corps of the Army of Virginia and several new regiments into the army of Potomac.


1864

Wars

Atlanta Surrenders To Union Forces

Atlanta surrendered to Union forces on this day in 1864 after the Confederates suffered heavy losses while trying to protect the city. The Union forces won battles one after the other, which led to the conclusion of the Civil War.


1957

Wars

The Price-Anderson Act Becomes A Law

The Price-Anderson Act became a law, as Section 170 of the Atomic Energy Act, after President Dwight D Eisenhower signed it on 2ndSeptember, 1957. The aim of the law was to remove hurdles for private sector participation in atomic energy and ensure availability of funds if a nuclear disaster occurred.


1898

Wars

Battle Of Omdurman

The Battle of Omdurman was fought on 2nd September 1898 between Anglo-Egyptian forces and the army of Mahdist leader Abd Allah. The Anglo-Egyptian forces led by Major General Sir Herbert Kitchener won the battle and occupied the Sudanese territory that was being held by the Mahdists since 1881.


1939

Wars

Nazi Germany Annexes The Free City Of Danzig

Nazi Germany captured the Free City of Danzig, Poland, on this day in 1939. A concentration camp was set up at Stutthof, where several prominent Danzing Jews were deported.


1944

Wars

Japanese Attack George H. W. Bush And His Squadron

In 1944, former U.S president George Herbert Walker Bush and his squadron were attacked by Japanese anti-aircraft guns when he was posted as torpedo bomber pilot during World War II. Bush succeeded in releasing his bombs and saving his life even after his plane’s engine caught fire.


1945

Wars

Japan Signs Instrument Of Surrender

Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed the Instrument of Surrender to the Allied nations on September 2, 1945. The document was signed on the deck of the US battleship Missouri and it marked the end of the Second World War.


1969

Wars

Nigerian Government Launches Operation OAU

The Nigerian Central Government forces began Operation OAU on 2nd September 1969 in order to seize the remaining Biafran cities. Though the Biafran forces were not very strong they managed to keep control over Umuahia and later recaptured Owerri and Aba cities.


1972

Wars

47th North Vietnamese MiG Is Destroyed

U.S fighter-bombers attacked, Phuc Yen, one of the largest air bases in North Vietnam, and shot down a MiG aircraft on this day in 1972. In all, 47 MiG aircraft were shot down since the North Vietnamese attack began.


1806

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Landslide Shatters Swiss Village Goladu

Goldau, a village in Switzerland, was devastated by a landslide on 2nd September, 1806. It was one of the most terrible natural disasters in the Alps that took 457 lives.


1923

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Tokyo Faces Massive Fire After Earthquake

In 1923, Japan’s capital Tokyo witnessed a wild fire after a severe earthquake. Overall 143,000 people perished in the disaster but the fire caused more damage than the earthquake.


1935

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Labor Day Storm Strikes Florida Keys

The Labor Day storm with the strength of a category 5 hurricane hit Florida Keys on this day in 1935. The storm took 408 lives, which included 259 World War I veterans.


1992

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Nicaragua Is Hit By Earthquake

A Tsunami earthquake measuring 7 on the Richter scale hit Nicaragua on this day in 1992. The quake killed at least 116 people and caused damage worth over 20million U.S. dollars.


1998

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Swissair Flight 111 Crashes In The Atlantic Ocean

Swissair Flight 111 crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near Peggys Cove off Nova Scotia in 1998. All 229 people on board the flight, which was on its way to Geneva from New York, were killed.


2013

Sports

Nyad Becomes The First To Swim Without A Shark Cage

On September 2 in 2013 swimmer Diana Nyad from the United States became the first person to swim across the Florida Straits from Cuba without a shark cage for protection. The 64-year-old Nayad achieved the swimming act in her fifth attempt in 35 years.


1946

Literature & Entertainment

Play ‘The Iceman Cometh’ Opens

The play ‘The Iceman Cometh’ debuted at the Martin Beck Theater on 2nd September 1946. The drama was written by American playwright Eugene O’Neill who was the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.


1996

Literature & Entertainment

Jackson Gets His 12th Number One Hit Song

In 1996, Michael Jackson gained his 12th number one hit song as a solo artist with ‘You Are Not Alone’ that featured at the top of the Billboard Hot 100. Mariah Carey is the only one artist to beat this record.


1666

Trivia

Great Fire Of London Breaks Out

The Great Fire of London erupted in the house of King Charles II’s baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge early in the morning of 2nd September 1666. The inferno took 16 lives and devastated more than four-fifths of London.


1752

Trivia

Great Britain Adopts Gregorian Calendar

Great Britain switched to the Gregorian calendar from the Julian calendar on 2nd September 1752. It was agreed upon that 2nd September 1752 will be followed by 14thSeptember 1752, causing the loss of 11 days.


1811

Trivia

The University Of Oslo Is Founded

The University of Oslo was established on 2nd September 1811as The Royal Frederick University after King Frederick of Denmark and Norway. It is the oldest, largest and most reputed university in Norway.


1833

Trivia

Oberlin College In Ohio Is Founded

The Oberlin College in Ohio was established on this day in 1833. Two Presbyterian ministers, John Jay Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart, were responsible for its foundation.


1859

Trivia

Solar Storm Affects Telegraph Service

A solar storm on 2ndSeptember 1859 caused magnetic disturbances that disrupted telegraph services badly in America. The telegraph operators were surprised to find that they could switch off the batteries and yet send messages using only the auroral current.


1885

Trivia

150 White Miners Kill 28 Chinese Co-workers

In Rock Springs, Wyoming, 150 white minersattacked their Chinese colleagues and killed 28, injured 15 workers and drove many out of the town on this day in 1885. The miners, who were employees of the Union Pacific coal mine, were trying for years to form a union and demanding better working conditions.


1901

Trivia

Roosevelt Speaks His Famous Line

American vice president Theodore Roosevelt spoke the famous words “Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick” during a speech at the Minnesota State Fair on September 2, 1901. Roosevelt became the 26th president of the United States after President William McKinley’s assassination.


1912

Trivia

Eldred Gets The First Eagle Scout Award

Arthur Rose Eldred received the first Eagle Scout rank on 2nd September, 1912. Eldred saved a fellow Scout from drowning a month before he was scheduled to receive the award.


1930

Trivia

Non-stop Flight From Europe To U.S Completes Its Journey

The first non-stop airplane flight from Europe to the United States completed its journey this day in 1930. Captain Dieudonne Coste and Maurice Bellonte of France took off from Paris and landed at Valley Stream, New York in their Question Mark plane.


1958

Trivia

United States Aircraft Is Shot Down By Soviet Forces

United States Air Force aircraft C-130A-II was shot down by Soviet Air Force over Yerevan, Armenia, after it entered Soviet Airspace on 2nd September 1958. All 17 crew members on board the airplane were killed in the attack.


1959

Trivia

Henry Ford II Unveils Falcon Car

In 1959, Henry Ford II launched its company’s new product- the 90-horsepower Falcon car. The car was termed as the “small car with the big car feel” and was an instant success.


1963

Trivia

First Half-Hour Weeknight News Program Is Broadcast

Walter Cronkite’s news became the first half-hour weeknight news program after its duration was increased to half an hour from 15 minutes on 2nd September 1963. Cronkite’s news on CBS surpassed NBC’s ‘Huntley-Brinkley Report’ in viewership.


1969

Trivia

ATM Makes Its Debut In The United States

The first automated teller machine (ATM) began its operation in America in 1969. The ATM was installed at the Chemical Bank in Rockville Center, New York.


1970

Trivia

NASA Cancels Apollo Missions 15 And 19

On 2nd September 1970, NASA announced the cancellation of Apollo missions15 and 19 at a press conference. It was decided that the redesignated Apollo 14-17 missions will be flown at a gap of six months in 1971 and 1972.


1984

Trivia

7 Die As Biking Gangs Engage In Gunfire

On 2nd September 1984, rivalry between two warring motorcycle gangs, Bandidos and Comancheros turned violent when 7 people were shot and killed, including one bystander. The incident took place in Milperra, Sydney, in which Comancheros lost 4 members while the Bandidos lost two of their brothers.


1985

Trivia

Sri Lankan Politicians Are Abducted And Killed

During the Sri Lankan civil war armed men kidnapped two ex-Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) Member of Parliament, M. Alalasundaram and V. Dharmalingam on the night of 2nd September, 1985. The two politicians were killed and their bodies were found on a road junction the next day.


1987

Trivia

Trial Of Mathias Rust Begins In Moscow

The trial of German teenager Mathias Rust who flew into Red Square, Russia, in his Cessna plane in May 1987 started in Moscow on this day in 1987. Rust remained undetected as he flew in the Soviet airspace and landed near the Kremlin in Moscow.


1998

Trivia

Ex-Mayor Of Taba Found Guilty Of Genocide

The former mayor of Taba, Rwanda, Jean-Paul Akayesu was found guilty of nine charges of genocide and crimes against humanity on this day in 1998. Akayesu was penalized with three life terms plus 80 years.


2012

Trivia

Newsreader With Headscarf Appears On Egyptian State TV

For the first time on Egyptian state television a woman wearing a headscarf presented the news bulletin on 2nd September 2012. Woman presenters were barred from covering their hair under ex-president Hosni Mubarak’s tenure.


People Born This Day

Henry George
(1839-1897)
Economist, Politician, Writer [ American ]
Bill Shankly
(1913-1981)
Scottish Footballer and Manager [ Scottish ]
Keanu Reeves
(1964-)
Actor [ Canadian ]
Salma Hayek
(1966-)
Actress [ Mexican ]
Alan K. Simpson
(1931-)
Former United States Senator [ American ]
Lennox Lewis
(1965-)
[ American ]
Mark Harmon
(1951-)
[ American ]
Jimmy Connors
(1952-)
Tennis Player [ American ]
Terry Bradshaw
(1948-)
Former NFL Star & TV Analyst [ American ]
Louis Bonaparte
(1778-1846)
King of Holland from 1806 to 1810 [ French ]
Kirkpatrick Macmillan
(1812-1878)
Inventor of Pedal Bicycle [ Scottish ]
Wilhelm Ostwald
(1853-1932)
Chemist [ German ]
Ahmad Shah Massoud
(1953-2001)
Former Afghan Military & Political Leader [ Afghan ]
Billy Preston
(1946-2006)
Musician & Songwriter [ American ]
Frederick Soddy
(1877-1956)
Radiochemist [ British ]
Hayley Noelle
(2008-)
YouTube personality [ American ]
Kian Robert Lawley
(1995-)
YouTuber, Twitter and Vine star [ American ]
Charles Trippy
(1984-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Madilyn Bailey
(1992-)
Singer-songwriter [ American ]
Natalie Jill
(1971-)
Fitness Trainer/Nutritionist/Author/TV Personality [ American ]
Chance Sutton
(1996-)
YouTube Star [ American ]
Sungha Jung
(1996-)
Guitarist [ South Korean ]


People Died This Day

Ho Chi Minh
(1890-1969)
Former PM and President of Democratic Republic of Vietnam [ Vietnamese ]
Christiaan Barnard
(1922-2001)
Cardiac Surgeon [ South African ]
Sir William Rowan Hamilton
(1805-1865)
Physicist, Astronomer and Mathematician [ Irish ]
J. R. R. Tolkien
(1892-1973)
Writer, Poet [ British ]
Thomas Telford
(1757-1834)
Civil Engineer [ Scottish ]
Jože Javoršek
(1920-1990)
Playwright [ Slovenian ]
Henry Lawson
(1867-1922)
Writer [ Australian ]
Barbara McClintock
(1902-1992)
Scientist [ American ]
George Reginald Starr
(1904-1980)
Secret agent during World War II [ British ]
Pierre de Coubertin
(1863-1937)
Father of the Modern Olympic Games [ French ]
George W. Norris
(1861-1944)
Former US Senator [ American ]
Alfonso García Robles
(1911-1991)
Diplomat [ Mexican ]
Enid Lyons
(1897-1981)
Politician [ Australian ]
Bernardino Rivadavia
(1780-1845)
First President of Argentina [ Argentine ]
Ronald Coase
(1910-2013)
Economist [ British ]
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