2nd June In History

“Power is of two kinds. One is obtained by the fear of punishment and the other by acts of love. Power based on love is a thousand times more effective and permanent then the one derived from fear of punishment.” - Mahatma Gandhi We all strive to achieve one thing– power. Our world is driven by the very thought of reaching the point where we call the shots and have people at our beck and call. Many wouldn’t agree, but in the end, isn’t it what everyone really wants? For people look at you and notice, to hear your word and scurry to fulfill it? In correspondence to the topic of power, let us elucidate on a famous quote once iterated by former President Abraham Lincoln. “Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power.” In reference to this, we take a look at the past events and how people utilized the power given to them. June 2 talks about several such individuals. From the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, to the abdication of King Juan Carlos of Spain, June 2nd has witnessed them all. The date is also known for the famous trip of Late Pope John Paul II, which triggered the derailment of communism and the building of solidarity. Again, like Mahatma Gandhi said, “Power based on love is a thousand times more effective and permanent then the one derived from fear of punishment”.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 2nd June



1537

Politics

Pope Paul III Banned The Enslavement Of Indians

Promulgating the document ‘Sublimis Deus’, Pope Paul III followed the decree of Charles I of Spain to interdict the enslavement and ill-treatment of the Indians. By doing so, he denounced the popular misbelief that the Indians were the “enemies of the human race”.


1774

Politics

The British Parliament Passes The Quartering Act

As part of the Intolerant Act which was passed onto the local governments in their colonies in America, the Quartering Act insisted on housing and provision of supplies and food to the British soldiers by the local government in their colonies.


1793

Politics

François Hanriot Sparks The ‘Reign Of Terror’ Leading To The ‘French Revolution’

Renowned leader of the French military troop ‘Parisian Guard’ François Hanriot and politician Jean- Paul Marat went on a spree of captivating Girondins and detained around 22 of them. This led to the ‘Reign of terror’, which was a series of violent clashes which eventually led to the ‘French Revolution’.


1848

Politics

The Slavic Congress In Prague Begins

In a measure to restrict the growth of German and Hungarian nationalism in the city of Prague, for the very first time, all the Slavs in Europe joined hands. This resulted in the formation of the political initiative called Pan-Slav Congress, also known as Slavic Congress.


1909

Politics

Alfred Deakin Becomes Prime Minister Of Australia For The Third Time

Known for being the second Prime Minister of Australia since the establishment of its constitution, Alfred Deakin on June 2nd, 1909 retained his position for the third time. His tenure was marked by his efforts in making liberal reforms and forming a balanced Commonwealth government.


1924

Politics

U.S. President Calvin Coolidge Signs The Indian Citizenship Act

Recognizing the participation of thousands of Indians in World War I, U.S President signed and promulgated the ‘Indian Citizenship Act’, which recognized all Indians as American citizens. The idea to do so was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder and it is also called the ‘Snyder Act’.


1946

Politics

The Italian Constitutional Referendum

In order to shift the rule from the Monarch, the House of Savoy, to a republic, Italians showed their support for the change through the Italian Constitutional Referendum. With Fascism already controlling the country since 1922, King Umberto II of Savoy was forced into exile and Italy later turned into a republic.


1953

Politics

Elizabeth II Is Crowned The Queen Of England

On this historical day, Queen Elizabeth was coronated making her the queen of England, Canada, Australia and New Zealand and the head of the Commonwealth. Her coronation was the first major event to be televised world-wide. She is now the longest reigning queen in history.


1955

Politics

The USSR And Yugoslavia Sign The Belgrade Declaration

This was an effort to douse the rift between the USSR and Yugoslavia caused by Yugoslav’s leader Josip Broz Tito’s total disregard for Joseph Stalin’s Marxism regime. The two countries signed the Belgrade Declaration to respect Yugoslav’s socialist reforms and thus, make peace.


1967

Politics

Protests In West Berlin Against The Arrival Of The Shah Of Iran Turn Into Riots

The arrival of the Shah of Iran spurred students to rally on the streets to protest against the leader’s extremist regimes. After provocation from the Shah’s personal guards, the protest turned violent resulting in the death of German student Benno Ohnesorg. His death was the impetus for the birth of the left-wing and anarchist group ‘Movement 2 June’, a group that soon carried out a string of violent protests.


2012

Politics

Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak Is Sentenced To Life Imprisonment

For his role involving the killings of protestors during the revolution in 2011 which resulted in his impeachment, President Hosni Mubarak was sentenced to life imprisonment. Mubarak was in power for a really long time.


2014

Politics

King Juan Carlos Of Spain Steps Down To Hand Over The Reign To His Son

Citing health issues and age as a determinant, King Juan Carlos of Spain stepped down as the supreme leader of the nation and handed over the reign to his son, Prince Felipe. His daughter’s public fund theft scandal was another reason he chose to step aside.


455

Wars

Sack Of Rome

Following Petronius Maximus’s ascension to the throne as the Emperor of Rome, the Vandals, an East Germanic tribe, led by their King Genseric, attacked Rome, as he wished to ascend the throne himself. The sack went on for 14 days with his army desecrating its buildings of cultural significance, hence, the name ‘Vandals’.


1010

Wars

Battle Of Aqbat Al-Bakr

The battle of Aqbat Al-Bakr was a conflict in which Muslims and Catholic forces joined hands to achieve a common goal. The Muslim rebels, under Muhammad ibn Hisham, marched along with the Christian warlords against the Caliphate of Cordoba in a bid to overthrow Sulayman ibn al-Hakam’s reign. The battle resulted in the victory of the rebels and the Christian Warlords.


1098

Wars

Siege Of Antioch

A common tactic to overthrow an army defended by the walls of a citadel, the crusaders sieged Antioch in an attempt to starve the Muslim population by cutting off supplies entering the city. As a result of starvation, the first siege failed on the part of the Crusaders. However, the second siege, which started a few days later, resulted in the crusaders emerging victorious.


1676

Wars

Battle Of Palermo

This event was a part of the infamous Franco-Dutch war, an important chapter of world history. The French emerged victorious in this battle, which involved several warships and galleys.


1763

Wars

The Pontiac's War Takes Place

Named after native leader Pontiac of the indigenous Odawa tribe, this war took place after the British attacked and destroyed their towns and forts. The indigenous native Indians launched a rebellion against the British, which was unsuccessful but resulted in a peace treaty that protected the rights of the natives.


1805

Wars

Napoleonic Wars: A Franco-Spanish Fleet Recaptures Diamond Rock

As per orders from Napoleon, the French fleets supported by the Spanish sailed to the Diamond Rock, known for its lustrous semblance, and attacked the British forces which had captured it. The battle resulted in the French reclaiming Diamond Rock.


1866

Wars

The Battle Of Fort Erie

Hours after the Battle of Ridgeway, the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish Organization, came in contact with 79 soldiers of the Canadian militia and outnumbered them to defeat. This came to be known as the Battle of Fort Erie.


1941

Wars

Massacre Of Kondomari

German commander Kurt Student orchestrated the Massacre of Kondomari, as a way of retaliating against the participation of the Greeks in the Battle of Crete. German paratroopers lined all the men in an olive garden and murdered them in cold blood. The women and children had to watch helplessly as their loved ones dropped to the ground.


1919

Disasters & Natural Calamities

United States Anarchist Bombings

In response to the promulgation of the anti-Semitic laws by government officials and the deportation of criminals from America, followers of anarchist Luigi Galleani set up eight bombs. These explosives, coupled with 25-pounds of dynamite and shrapnel, detonated almost simultaneously. The bombs targeted government officials and inevitably led to the Red-Scare in United States history.


1983

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Air Canada Flight 797 Disaster Kills 23

In a flight from Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to Montréal–Dorval International Airport, the DC-9 engine emitted smoke from the washroom that soon filled the insides of the plane. This eventually led to fire and damage to the electrical cables connecting the cockpit. The flight did make an emergency landing but the situation worsened when the emergency door was flung open to enable evacuations. The fresh oxygen created a flashover, killing 23 people who were yet to exit the plane. The disaster brought in strict safety regulations and smoke detectors in lavatories.


1990

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Lower Ohio Valley Tornado Outbreak Kills 9

The outbreak which spawned numerous tornadoes tore through Illinois and Indiana for about 106-miles and devastated everything in its dreaded path. The tornadoes caused 9 deaths and resulted in heavy property damage.


2012

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Cargo Plane Crashes During Takeoff In Ghana, Killing At Least 10

The mishap occurred when the pilot overshot the runway in bad weather in the Ghana's Accra airport, crashing through the fence and then into a minibus, killing 10 people on the spot.


1883

Sports

The First Baseball Game Under Electric Lights Was Played In Fort Wayne, Indiana

In what was a historical night for baseball, the game between Quincy, Illinois, and the ‘M. E. Church Nine’ teams was played under floodlights for the first time ever. Quincy emerged victorious with an impressive score of 19-11 in this contest, which was witnessed by 2000 people.


1925

Sports

Lou Gehrig Breaks The Record For The Most Consecutive Games In Baseball History

Nicknamed ‘The Iron Horse’ for his hard hitting ability, Gehrig broke the record for the most number of consecutive games while playing his 2164th match. With 493 Home Runs at an average of .340, he went down in history as one of the best players of the game. The record stood for 56 years till it was broken in 1995 by Cal Ripken, Jr.


1935

Sports

George Herman ‘Babe’ Ruth Announced That He Was Retiring From Baseball

A career spanning 22 years, with 10 World Series titles and approximately 714-home-runs to his credit, Babe Ruth was one of the finest gems of Baseball. The legendary sportsman announced that he would be retiring from baseball on June 2nd, 1935. He was inducted into the Hall of fame of Baseball the very next year.


1958

Sports

Whitey Ford Ties Al Record By Striking Out 6 Straight Batters

Known as the ‘Greatest living Yankee’ and the ‘Chairman of the board’, Ford equaled an astounding Baseball record by successfully striking out 6 batters in an innings.


1962

Sports

The Battle Of Santiago

Italian journalists Antonio Ghirelli and Corrado Pizzinelli slammed the host nation Chile for its poor infrastructure, leaving many Chileans fuming. As a consequence, the game between the Italians and the Chileans turned into a bloody battle. The contest turned so violent that the police had to intervene and separate a few bruised and battered players. This horrific event was tagged as the battle of Santiago, and went down in history as one of the most violent games of all time.


1985

Sports

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar Scores His 4,458th Playoff Point Making Him The Highest NBA Scorer In History

Jabbar managed to beat legendary sportsman Jerry West’s record by scoring his 4,458th playoff point on this day. He eventually closed the curtains of his career with 5,762 points, a feat that Michael Jordan would eventually topple.


2015

Sports

Sepp Blatter Resigns As The President Of FIFA

Just five days after being re-elected for his fifth term as the President of ‘FIFA’, Blatter stepped down following accusations of involvement in money-laundering and bribery amounting to millions of Euros. He is currently serving a suspension of six years.


1835

Literature & Entertainment

P. T. Barnum And His Circus Start Their First Tour Of The United States

In what was a historical start for entertainment, P.T Barnum, the founder and mass promoter of circuses, started his first American circus tour this very day. Later on, Barnum joined his rival Bailey in what is popularly known as the ‘Barnum & Bailey circus acts’.


1933

Literature & Entertainment

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt Accepted The First Swimming Pool To Be Built Inside The White H

In a bid to overcome his paralysis, President Franklin D. Roosevelt built the first ever swimming pool in the White House. The pool was also equipped with State of the art facilities such as underwater lights, sterilizers and heaters.


1999

Literature & Entertainment

The Bhutan Broadcasting Service Brings Television Transmissions To The Kingdom For The First Time

Bhutan was the only nation in the world to ban television. However, on June 2nd, 1999, as a celebration of the silver jubilee of their King Jigme Singye Wangchuck, the Bhutan Broadcasting Service resumed television access to all the citizens.


2004

Literature & Entertainment

Ken Jennings Begins His 74-Game Winning Streak On The Syndicated Game Show ‘Jeopardy’

Holding the record for the longest winning streak on the popular game show ‘Jeopardy’, contestant Ken Jennings on this day started his love affair with the game show, eventually leading to a 74-Game Winning Streak. He was beaten in his 75th game, but amassed a wealth of $3,196,300 through his previous victories, making him the second highest earner in the game show’s history.


1937

Literature & Entertainment

"The Fabulous Dr. Tweedy" Was Broadcast On NBC Radio For The First Time

The hit series starring acclaimed actor Frank Morgan who also starred in the ‘Wizard of Oz’, kicked off this very day, much to the anticipation of the American audience. His character was characterized by being absent minded, hilarious and quixotic- elements that suited Morgan perfectly at this stage of his career.


1615

Trivia

The First Récollet Missionaries Arrive At Quebec City, From Rouen, France

Now known as the Franciscan monks, the recollect missionaries started their mission in France on this very day. In the 19th century, Pope Leo XIII dissolved them and added the congregation to the Friars Minor. The Recollects devote themselves to self-reflection, poverty, fasting and pastoral duties.


1692

Trivia

Bridget Bishop Is The First Person To Go To Trial In The Salem Witch Trials

Bridget was the first person and woman to be tried by the court, found guilty and executed on the basis of witchcraft. Accused of bewitching five women, Bridget was executed, since witchcraft was considered an act of heresy at that time. After her, 20 other witches were executed as a part of the Salem witchcraft trials.


1855

Trivia

Portland Rum Riot

In response to the Maine Law which prohibited alcohol in Portland, Maine, civilians gathered to the spot where alcohol was locked up and protested in an effort to lift the ban. Seven were injured and one dead during the violent agitation. Ironically, Dow was charged and found guilty under the Maine Law but was later acquitted, nevertheless labeled a ‘hypocrite’ by the Maine population forever.


1886

Trivia

U.S President Grover Cleveland Marries In The White House

On June 2nd, President Grover Cleveland married 21-year-old Frances Folsom at the white house. This was the only wedding of a president to take place at the famous building.


1896

Trivia

Guglielmo Marconi Applies For A Patent For His Newest Invention, The Radio

Now recognized as the inventor of the Radio and the pioneer for long-distance radio transmissions, Marconi applied for a patent for his remarkable invention, the radio, on this very day. For his efforts, Marconi was awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize and the Marchese honors by the King of Italy.


1910

Trivia

Charles Rolls Becomes The First Man To Make A Non-Stop Double Crossing Of The English Channel By Pla

The co-founder of ‘Rolls Royce Limited’ was not only an automobile manufacturer, but also an aviation pioneer. For his feat of crossing the English Channel he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Aero Club. This path-breaking achievement happened on this day of 1910.


1966

Trivia

‘Surveyor’ Spacecraft Successfully Lands On The Moon

The unmanned craft ‘Surveyor 1’, launched on May 30th, landed successfully on the moon on June 2nd, making it the first craft to land on another planet. 11,000 pictures were captured through this space mission to study the surface of the moon.


1967

Trivia

Luis Monge Is Executed In Colorado's Gas Chamber, In The Last Pre-Furman Execution In The United Sta

Serial killer Luis Monge was the last criminal to have been given the death sentence before the death penalty went into a 10-year lull. The execution of Gary Gilmore in 1977 ended the moratorium of executions.


1979

Trivia

Pope John Paul II Starts His First Official Visit To His Native, Poland

Now known as ‘Saint John Paul The Great’, Pope John Paul II made history by returning home, making him the first pope ever to visit a communist country. Many religious people believe that the minute he kissed the ground up on his arrival in Poland, the decline of Communism in Poland and Europe was steady.


1995

Trivia

United States Air Force Captain Scott O'Grady's F-16 Is Shot Down While Patrolling The ‘NATO’ No-Fly

Nicknamed ‘Lulu’, Grady was forced to eject from his ‘F-16’ aircraft, which was flying over Bosnia, after the plane was shot down. For a week, he successfully evaded Serbians, before he was rescued by marines. The episode had partially influenced the Hollywood blockbuster ‘Behind Enemy Lines’.


1997

Trivia

Timothy Mcveigh Is Convicted For The Oklahoma City Bombings

Infuriated by the way the United States Government handled the ‘WACO Siege’, ex- American soldier Timothy carried out the Oklahoma bombings using a truck loaded with explosives which shattered buildings and killed 168 people. The attack was the worst until the September 11, 2001 twin tower tragedy, but is still considered horrific with regard to domestic terrorism. For this heinous crime, Timothy was sentenced to death on June 2, 1997.


2003

Trivia

Europe Launches Its First Voyage To Another Planet, Mars

The ‘Mars Express’, a space vehicle launched from the ‘Baikonur Space Center’ in Kazakhstan, marked the dawn of a new era of space research. The objective of the mission was to detect the presence of water on the surface of Mars.


2013

Trivia

Columbia University Researchers Claim ‘Graphene’ Is The Strongest Material In The World

Researchers from ‘Columbia University’ stunned all by proving that Graphene despite its defects, when bound together, is the strongest material in the world. Many hailed the revelation as a path-breaking achievement in the field of science.


2003

Trivia

William Baily Was Reunited With Two Paintings He Had Left On A Subway Platform

Baily recovered two of his beloved paintings that he had mistakenly left in the subway, leaving him quite relived. One of the paintings drew inspiration from Picasso’s ‘Guernica’ and was a recreation of the two male figures.


People Born This Day

Thomas Hardy
(1840-1928)
Novelist & Poet [ British ]
Edward Elgar
(1857-1934)
Composer [ British ]
Martha Washington
(1731-1802)
[ American ]
Wentworth Miller
(1972-)
Actor [ British ]
Dana Carvey
(1955-)
Actor [ American ]
Justin Long
(1978-)
[ American ]
Nandan Nilekani
(1955-)
Founder of Infosys [ Indian ]
Helen Herron Taft
(1861-1943)
First Lady of the United States [ American ]
Charlie Watts
(1941-)
Drummer [ British ]
A.J. Styles
(1977-)
Professional Wrestler [ American ]
Lilimar
(2000-)
Actress [ Venezuelan ]
Madison Hu
(2002-)
Child Actress & Social Media Star [ American ]
Abby Wambach
(1980-)
Soccer Player [ American ]


People Died This Day

Anthony De Mello
(1931-1987)
Authored books related to spirituality, lectures and spiritual conferences [ Indian ]
Lou Gehrig
(1903-1941)
Baseball Player [ American ]
Andres Segovia
(1893-1987)
Guitarist [ Spanish ]
Helen Carter
(1927-1998)
Singer-Songwriter [ American ]
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-1882)
Italian Nationalist [ Italian ]
Elmina Wilson
(1870-1918)
First Lady of Structural Engineering [ American ]
Karl Brandt
(1904-1948)
Personal Physician of Adolf Hitler [ German ]
Rex Harrison
(1908-1990)
Actor [ British ]
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