2nd April In History

“The price of hating other human beings is loving oneself less. “ - Eldridge Cleaver History in short, is a bucket full of loathe. For most of our time on this planet, centuries, years, days and from minutes to seconds, we have failed to bridge a gap between each other. Instead, we have built walls that have bifurcated civilization, prosecuting the trespassers and those who dare challenge our place in society. Not a day, in almost every year has gone by, without us as a race collectively living in consonance. We have always disagreed and found ways to repress the other when there has been no reason to. Talking about hate and our inability to work together as one, we focus on the events that have occurred on this very day in the past, events that have wounded many and left everlasting scars. From the moment in 1917, when United States President Woodrow Wilson declared war on Germany, a decision that shaped the very outcome of the First World War, considering they had held a neutral position for almost two years as the war went on, to the Vietnam War that resulted in the loss of more than a million people. One thing’s for sure is that history repeats and so does our mistakes- a loop that we have failed time and time again to assimilate.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 2nd April



1851

Politics

King Mongkut Ascends The Throne As King Of Thailand

Also known as Rama IV, he is regarded by the people of Siam as the “Father of Science and Technology”. Since his coronation to the throne on April 2nd, 1851, Rama IV pioneered modernization in the country by welcoming western innovations and embedding them into their culture.


1863

Politics

Richmond Bread Riot

With the American Civil War in its third year already, the Union besieged the land of Richmond, Virginia, and took control of their inflow of food supplies. The result of this caused the prices to soar ten times the normal and inevitably caused starvation. On April 2nd, a mob consisting only of women marched in front of the Capitol. When their request was blatantly pushed aside, the mob took to the streets with axes and looted shops, carts and even jewelry stores. The incident was tagged “The Richmond Bread Riot”.


1902

Politics

Russian Statesman Dmitry Sipyagin Is Assassinated In The Marie Palace, St Petersburg

Russian diplomat, Dmitry Sipyagin was assassinated by Soviet revolutionary Stepan Balmashov on April 2nd in the Marie palace.


1930

Politics

Haile Selassie Ascends The Throne As Emperor Of Ethiopia After The Death Of Zewditu

The succession followed the mysterious death of Zewditu, the empress of Ethiopia, who historians claim died of grief after the demise of her husband Ras Gugsa Welle two days earlier.


1973

Politics

A New Party, The Liberal Party Is Announced In Australia

The South-Australian party was announced after a convention following the discontent they shared with the Liberal and Country League.


1980

Politics

United States President Jimmy Carter Signs The Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act

In a bid to stabilize the economy in United States, the 39th President of the United States, Jimmy Carter passed The Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act. The act mainly dealt with excise tax on windfall profits, or sudden profits.


1986

Politics

George Wallace, The Governor Of Alabama, Calls It Quits After Four Terms

In what was the third longest gubernatorial tenure in United States history after the formation of the constitution, On April 2nd, Wallace finally called for retirement after serving four terms as the governor of Alabama. Known popularly as a segregationist, Wallace apologized to the African-Americans before his death for being racist.


1990

Politics

Saddam Hussein Threatened To Incinerate Half Of Israel

Presuming that the Israeli forces might join the war against them, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein threatened to incinerate half of the Israeli nation with chemical weapons if they poked their nose into his country’s affairs.


1991

Politics

Rita Johnston Becomes The First Female Canadian Premier

Succeeding Bill Vander Zalm in 1991, Rita created history by becoming the first female Canadian Premier on April 2nd, 1991. Mike Harcourt succeeded her as premier six months later.


1801

Wars

Napoleonic Wars: Battle Of Copenhagen

On April 2nd, the British Naval army travelled to Copenhagen and trounced the Danish on their shores. Admiral Horatio Nelson ignored orders by his general and continued to destroy the Danish fleet even after the battle was in their control. The attack did cost six times more damage than what the Brits suffered. Over 6000 Danish soldiers were killed and wounded.


1865

Wars

American Civil War: The Third Battle Of Petersburg Virginia

Also known as the Fall of Petersburg, the Union under the command of General-in-chief, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, captured the trenches and fortifications of the Confederates. By doing so, they barred their right-rear flank, resulting in 10,000 Confederate soldiers killed the next day. The battle led to the Appomattox Campaign, which was the final chapter of the American Civil War.


1865

Wars

President Jefferson Davis And The Confederates Flee Richmond, Virginia

After the failure at the ‘Battle of Petersburg’ and with the Civil War defeat imminent, President Davis, his cabinet and officers fled their base at Richmond, Virginia. The troop scrambled through the only open rail route at that time to the south. He was captured on May 10th, 1865.


1917

Wars

President Woodrow Wilson Asks The Congress To Allow Him To Declare War On Germany

After series of attacks by Germany on the American people, United States President Woodrow Wilson called for a joint session to vote on his intention to declare war on Germany. He received a majority of 82 to 6 and on April 6th, 1917, America declared war on Germany in the First World War.


1975

Wars

Mass Evacuations Take Place Following The ‘1975 Spring Offensive’ By North Vietnam

The ‘1975 Spring Offensive’ was a series of offensive operations conducted by the North Vietnamese to force the South into submission. With the impending attack in the faces of the civilians, thousands fled their homes which were target points, and the mass evacuations’ interference with military operations resulted in the collapse of South Vietnam.


1982

Wars

Falklands War: Argentina Invades The Falkland Islands

The Falkland War which was fought between Argentina and the British over the Falkland Islands for ten weeks. The Island war, caused because both nations claimed the region as theirs, reached a breaking edge when Argentina occupied the islands on April 2nd, to establish sovereignty. The War was eventually won by the British.


1989

Wars

Editorial Claims That The Cold War Is Finally Over

An article released in the New York Times on April 2nd, which was penned by John C. Ausland, claimed that the Cold War was finally over. Under the section “Signs of change”, John elucidated how the war could be finally done and dusted.


2006

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Central United States Tornado Outbreak Kills 28

About 66 tornadoes broke out in Central U.S.A causing severe loss of damage and life. The deadly F3 killed 16 at Newbern, Tennessee, claimed another two in the towns of Marmaduke, and Caruthersville, and 6 more in the town of Bradford.


2007

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Solomon Islands Earthquake Triggers Tsunami That Kills 52

On April 2nd, 2007, at 7:39:56 a.m. local time, an earthquake scaling a disastrous 8.1 on the magnitude meter triggered a Tsunami that claimed the lives of 52 people. Several aftershocks were experienced in the neighboring areas, with the worst measuring 6. 2 on the Richter scale.


1982

Sports

Steve McCatty In Protest Comes Out To Bat With A 15-Inch Plastic Bat

Playing for the Oakland Athletics, under instruction from Coach Billy Martin, Steve walked out against the San Diego Padres to bat with a 15-inch plastic bat to protest them disallowing the ‘designated hitter’ rule. The rule stated that a designated striker can come on instead of a pitcher.


1984

Sports

John Thompson Became The First Black Coach To Win The NCAA College Basketball Championship

By defeating the University of Houston 84–75, John Thompson made history by becoming the first black coach to win the NCAA College Basketball Championship with the Georgetown Hoyas. Thompson is now a TV sports commentator.


1986

Sports

The NCAA Rules Committee Adopt The 45-Second Shot Clock For Men’s Basketball

For the first time in college basketball history, the NCAA committee adopted the 45-second shot clock rule. The rule allowed the offense to hold possession of the ball for just 45-seconds after reclaiming possession from the opposition. It was revised to 35-seconds in 1994.


1986

Sports

Three Point Rule Adopted By The NCAA

In order to make the game more enjoyable and giving the shorter players a better chance of scoring, while opening up the defenses, the NCAA for the first time adopted the three-pointer field goal rule.


1995

Sports

The Costliest Strike In Professional Sports History Ended

The longest strike in Major League Baseball, caused over a feud between players and owners over their salary caps and ability to play without a contract, ended on April 2nd, 1995 after 232 days. The strike resulted in the league being cancelled and the first time since 1904 that the World Series was not played.


2014

Sports

Sacramento Kings Hand Lakers Their 50th Loss Of Season

In what was their worst streak since 1974-75, the Lakers were handed their unprecedented 50th loss of the season when they lost 107-102 to the Sacramento Kings.


1800

Literature & Entertainment

Beethoven Premiers His First Symphony At The Burgtheater

In what was described by the ‘Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung’ as the “Most interesting concert in a long time”, prodigy classical composer Beethoven played his First symphony after renting out the Burgtheater. The program included compositions of Haydn and Mozart as well.


1902

Literature & Entertainment

The First Permanent Movie Theater Opens In Los Angeles

Opened in the spring of 1902 by Thomas L. Tally, the ‘Electric Theater’ was the first permanent cinema to be opened in United States. The cinema was situated in Los Angeles.


1947

Literature & Entertainment

"The Big Story" Debuted On NBC Radio

Nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award, ‘The Big Story’, a crime drama which portrayed actual crime incidents that have occurred in the past and reported in the daily newspapers made its debut on April 2nd. It ran for the eight straight years that followed.


1956

Literature & Entertainment

Soap Operas As The World Turns And The Edge Of Night Premiere On CBS-TV

‘As the World Turns’, which ran for 54-years after it premiered, and ‘Edge of Night’ made history on April 2nd by becoming the first daytime 30-minute long shows to be broadcasted. Initially the 30-minute shows were not big hits but they soon caught on with the viewers. Edge of Night ran till November 28, 1975.


1974

Literature & Entertainment

David Niven And Diana Ross Host The 46th Academy Awards

The 46th Academy Awards which took place on April 2nd saw the movie “The Sting” bag the most honors while Glenda Jackson and Jack Lemmon won best actress and actor respectively. The highlight of the award show was when Robert Opel, a streaker, interrupted the show while Elizabeth Taylor was on stage presenting best picture.


1513

Trivia

Juan Ponce De León Discovers Florida

On April 2nd, Juan Ponce De León fleet spotted the island that he eventually named La Florida. He named it so because he stepped on the foreign land during the Easter season, which the Spaniards usually refer to as Pascua Florida (Festival of Flowers).


1792

Trivia

The United States Mint Is Established

On April 2nd, 1792, the United States Congress passed the Coinage Act, which established the regulation of coins in the country. The silver dollar was also established and thus the basic structure of the United States currency was framed.


1872

Trivia

G. B. Brayton Received A Patent For The Liquid Fuel Injection System

The engine which paved way for the first motor car was also used in the use of the first submarine. In 1872, Brayton received the patent making him a revolutionary inventor.


1885

Trivia

Cree Aboriginals Kill 9 In The Frog Lake Massacre

The north-west rebellion, which was the uprising by the indigenous Cree tribe against the government for their failure to protect their rights and distinct nature, resulted in the Frog Lake Massacre. Here nine white men were killed by the people of this first nation tribe.


1911

Trivia

The First Census In Australia Is Conducted

On the night of April 2nd, the Australian Bureau of Statistics conducted their first ever census to tally the total population of the country. Barring foreign diplomats, everyone else was compelled to participate in the Census.


1912

Trivia

The World’s Largest Passenger Boat RMS Titanic Begins Sea Trials

Eight days before the Titanic historically set sail from Southampton, UK; it began sea trials just two days after completion. On April 15th the Titanic hit an iceberg, causing the boat to sink and killing 1500 people on board.


1932

Trivia

A $50,000 Ransom Was Paid For The Infant Son Of Charles And Anna Lindbergh

On March 1st, 1932, toddler Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr. was kidnapped from his house and a month later his parents paid a ransom of $50,000 to retrieve their son. Sadly, on May 12, 1932, his body was found close to their home with the cause of death being identified as a skull fracture. Following a two year trial, Richard Hauptmann was found guilty and sentenced to death.


1962

Trivia

The First Panda Crossing Is Introduced In The United Kingdom

Similar to the Zebra crossing, the first Panda crossing, which is also a signal controlled pedestrian crossing, was introduced just outside the Waterloo Station, London.


1972

Trivia

Charlie Chaplin Returns To The United States After Two Decades After The Red Scare

Two decades after leaving the United States for being labelled a communist, Charlie Chaplin returned to the United States to receive his honorary award at the Academy Awards. Chaplin received a 12-minute standing ovation, the longest ever in the history of the Academy awards.


1973

Trivia

LexisNexis Computerized Legal Research Service Is Launched In Ohio, United States

Now the world's largest electronic database for legal and public-records related information, LexisNexis first launched on April 2nd, 1973, in Ohio, United States. Apart from computer-assisted legal search, the database also dealt with business management and risk management.


1975

Trivia

The CN Tower Becomes The World’s Tallest Free-Standing Structure

After 26-months of construction, the CN Tower located in Toronto scaled a neck twinging height of 553.33 m-high (1,815.4 ft.), thereby becoming the tallest free-standing structure and tower in the world. It held the record for 34-years until it was eclipsed by the Burj Khalifa and Canton Tower.


1986

Trivia

On A TWA Airliner Flying From Rome To Athens A Bomb Exploded Under A Seat

On the journey from Rome to Athens, a bomb which was placed under the seat by a Lebanese woman the previous flight, exploded over Argos, Greece. The explosion blew a hole in the craft, sucking four Americans, including an infant to their deaths. The Arab Revolutionary Cells claimed responsibility for the attack, saying that it was intended against the Americans for their imperialism and attack on Libya the previous week. The flight was landed by the pilot and the rest of the 110 passengers on board survived the attack but some were injured by the shrapnel.


1992

Trivia

Italian-American Mobster John Gotti Is Sentenced To Life Imprisonment

The boss of the Gambino family, Gotti, despite being acquitted thrice of all charges earlier, was finally convicted for murder, extortion, gambling, tax evasion and obstruction of justice. Gotti was tagged as the "The Dapper Don" by the media because of his animated personality in front of the camera and expensive clothing.


1992

Trivia

Bijeljina Massacre Claims More Than 48 Lives

The Bijeljina massacre which spawned as a result of the Bosnian Wars claimed the lives of more than 48 civilians. The civilians were gunned down on the streets of Bijeljina by Serb Paramilitary groups.


1993

Trivia

Venezuela Linea Aeropostal DC-10 Crashes

In what was a freak accident off the coast of the Margarita Islands, the Venezuela Linea Aeropostal DC-10 crashed killing the ten people on board.


2002

Trivia

Siege Of The Church Of The Nativity In Bethlehem

As part of the ‘Operation Defensive Shield’ which was conducted by the Israeli forces after the Passover bombings by the Palestinians, the Israeli forces besieged the church of Nativity in Bethlehem. They presumed that the Palestinians had taken refuge in the church by holding the priests and worshippers hostage. The siege prolonged for 39-days after which the militants turned themselves in to the Israeli forces and were deported.


2004

Trivia

Terrorist Attack Thwarted On AVE Near Madrid, Spain

Less than a month after the March 11 Madrid bombings that killed 191 people and injured 1500, police thwarted another attack on April 2nd .That very morning, they found 12 kilograms of Goma-2 ECO with a detonator and 136 meters of wire on the AVE high speed railway track. The next day, police surrounded the house where the suspected terrorists Jamal Zougam, Sarhane Abdelmaji and Jamal Ahmidan were taking refuge but the terrorists committed suicide by blowing themselves up and in the process killing a police officer.


2012

Trivia

Mass Shooting At The Oikos University Kills Seven

The Oikos University mass shooting in Oakland, California, United States, is considered the deadliest mass killing in the history of the place. 43-year-old One L. Goh, a former student at the school, opened fire in the campus at 10:30 A.M and lined up students in a classroom before firing at them. He said, "Get in line ... I'm going to kill you all!" He then got into his car and sprayed bullets while driving away. He was captured later that very day.


2014

Trivia

Fort Hood Shooting Claims The Lives Of Three

Following an altercation with fellow soldiers, 34-year-old Army Specialist Ivan Lopez opened fire at the Ford Hood military base in Texas. Ivan killed four people including himself and injured fourteen other people in the process.


2015

Trivia

147 People Killed In The Garissa University College Attack

An attack that was made by the Al Shabab, an Al Qaeda-linked extremist group, meant to kill Christians, resulted in the loss of 147 people and injuring 79, mainly students. Strapped to bombs, all four terrorists blew up when they were shot at.


2015

Trivia

Louis Jordan Is Rescued After Being Lost In The Sea For 66-Days

In what was a real life ‘Cast away’ scenario, Louis Jordan was rescued after 66-days of drifting on the sea when rescuers spotted him atop his capsized boat. Sunburnt, dehydrated but hopeful in spirit, Louis narrated to the rescuers and his overwhelmed family how he survived on just fish and rainwater. In an interview just after being rescued, he stated that he was 'utterly thankful and grateful' to God for giving him a second chance.


People Born This Day

Giovanni Gabrieli
(1904-1612)
Composer, Organist [ Italian ]
Camille Paglia
(1947-)
Cultural critic [ American ]
Charlemagne
(0742-0814)
[ German ]
Rodney King
(1965-2012)
Victim of Police Abuse [ American ]
Emile Zola
(1840-1902)
[ French ]
Serge Gainsbourg
(1928-1991)
[ French ]
Alec Guinness
(1914-2000)
Actor [ British ]
Giacomo Casanova
(1725-1798)
Womanizer [ Italian ]
Marvin Gaye
(1939-1984)
Singer, Musician [ American ]
Emmylou Harris
(1947-)
Singer [ American ]
Hans Christian Andersen
(1805-1875)
[ Danish ]
Keshorn Walcott
(1993-)
Olympic athlete [ Trinidadian ]
Nariman Narimanov
(1870-1925)
Politician [ Azerbaijani ]
Sir Charles Trevelyan, 1st Baronet
(1807-1886)
Father of Modern British Civil Service [ British ]
Christopher Meloni
(1961-)
Actor [ American ]
Nicholas Murray Butler
(1862-1947)
Philosopher, Educator [ American ]
Max Ernst
(1891-1976)
Painter, Sculptor [ German ]
Linford Christie
(1960-)
Retired Sprinter [ British ]
Bindeshwar Pathak
(1943-)
Founder of Sulabh International [ Indian ]
Benjamin Lasnier
(1999-)
Singer, Social Media Star [ Danish ]
Quavo Marshall
(1991-)
Rapper [ American ]
Gabriel Mathis
(1998-)
YouTube / YouNow Star [ American ]


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