28th March In History

As they say, ‘history repeats itself’. Therefore, to be in a better disposition we need to keep our historical knowledge updated. However, it is not always the wrongs that we need to keep an account of; most of the time it is the recollection of achievements of our ancestors that we remember, hindering them from slipping into oblivion. Many great inventions and discoveries that have changed our lives for good have their roots in the past. The path on which we have traversed and reached this far has been paved by our forefathers or we can say it is our history that has brought us to this stage. Every date holds a unique significance, be it a day in the BC or the past year. For instance, the Czech Teachers’ Day is celebrated on 28th March, a date which repeats in the calendar every year. Even then this date has great importance when seen in terms of past events; happenings which occurred on this day have been instrumental in bringing about massive changes in world history. A peep into this date will provide us with a substantial dose of history.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 28th March



37

Politics

Emperor Caligula Bestowed With The Titles Of The Principate

Roman emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, better known as Caligula, was given the titles of Principate in 37 AD. After the death of Emperor Tiberius, the Senate chose Caligula for the throne and hence, he was the one to receive the titles.


193

Politics

Assassination Of Roman Emperor Pertinax

Pertinax succeeded the throne after Emperor Commodus was murdered and ruled for a brief period of three months. He administered the empire in 193, becoming one of the five Roman emperors to rule during the ‘Year of the Five Emperors’.


364

Politics

Flavius Valens Appointed As Co-Emperor Roman Emperor Valentinian I

Once Valentinian I took charge of the Roman Empire, he elected his brother Flavius Valens as the co-emperor. While Valentinian I monitored the western provinces of the state, his brother was bestowed with the responsibility of taking care of the eastern part.


1774

Politics

Implementation Of Coercive Act By British Parliament

The ‘Boston Tea Party’ of 1773 triggered the implementation of the ‘Coercive Acts’ by the British Parliament. This series of laws were passed in 1774, and applied to the British colonies in North America.


1795

Politics

Polish-Lithuanian Region Duchy Of Courland Becomes A Part Of Imperial Russian

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and then Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth before it was annexed to be included in Imperial Russia. The Russian Empire acquired the state in 1795 in the ‘Third Partition of Poland’.


1834

Politics

President Jackson Censured By The US Senate With Regards To Removal Of Federal Deposits

President Andrew Jackson’s decision to dismantle the ‘Bank of the United States’ met with much opposition from the US Senate on this day. For this action he was censured by the Senate and the event was the first of its kind when a president was reprimanded by the Congress.


1871

Politics

Formal Establishment Of The Paris Commune Government

The defeat of France and the resultant fall of Emperor Napoleon III’s government in the ‘Franco-Prussian War’ triggered the formation of the Paris Commune. This was the government which reigned over Paris for a brief period of time but then it was curbed by the French army.


1946

Politics

The Acheson–Lilienthal Report Was Presented By US To Gain Global Control Of Nuclear Power

During the initial phase of the ‘Cold War’, the U.S. Department of state put forward the report known as the ‘Acheson-Lilienthal’ report. This report presented a plan according to which the United States will have supreme power in monitoring the nuclear weapons.


1959

Politics

Tibetan Government Dissolved

Dalai Lama led the Tibetan theocratic government but in 1959, this government was dissolved and Tibet was made a part of the People’s Republic of China. This day is also known as the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet and resulted in Dalai Lama’s exile to India.


2006

Politics

Protest Against First Employment Contract

According to the law known as the ‘First Employment Contract’ or CPE, an employee could be fired during a two-year trial period without providing any reason for the dismissal. A mass protest against this law was carried out throughout the country which initiated the government to take measures to replace this law.


2011

Politics

President Obama Speaks About Libya

President Barack Obama spoke to the public about United States’ intervention in the ‘Libyan Civil War’. He said that the military intervention by the US was to protect innocent Libyan civilians from being killed by the dictator Muammar Gaddafi.


1794

Wars

Allied Forces Under The Leadership Of Prince Of Coburg Defeated The French Army

Prince Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was a general who took charge of the army based in Austrian Netherlands during the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1794, the allied forces under the guidance of Prince of Coburg got the better of the French army.


1809

Wars

Defeat Of Spain In The Battle Of Medellín

The French forces headed by Marshal Victor emerged triumphant in the ‘Battle of Medellín’ against the Spanish forces. This was one of the many battles fought during the ‘Peninsular War’.


1814

Wars

US Navy Defeated By Royal Navy Of Uk In The Battle Of Valparaiso

During ‘War of 1812’, the ‘Battle of Valparaiso’ was fought and it was in this battle that one of the major naval conflicts took place. In the struggle the Royal Navy of UK which was the strongest naval power of the world at that time, emerged victorious.


1854

Wars

Declaration Of War Against Russia By France And Britain

The ‘Crimean War’ gained momentum when France and Britain waged war against Russia. This war brought about a huge change in the power structure of Europe in which Russia was lost to the allied forces of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia.


1860

Wars

Battle Of Waireka Began

A dispute over a property at Waitara between the government of New Zealand and Māori people resulted in the ‘First Taranaki War’. One of the significant struggles of this war was the ‘Battle of Waireka’ which was fought in 1860.


1862

Wars

Battle Of Glorieta Pass Concluded

During the ‘American Civil War’, the ‘Battle of Glorieta Pass’ was one of the major conflicts of the ‘New Mexican Campaign’. The battle fought between the Union and the Confederate ended and with it concluded the ‘New Mexican Campaign’.


1864

Wars

Federal Soldiers Attacked By Copperheads (Union Democrats) In Charleston

The event known as the ‘Charleston riot’ was a conflict which involved the Union soldiers and Republicans against the democratic group called the Copperheads. Reportedly, 9 people were killed and around 12 were injured in the clash.


1883

Wars

France Emerged Victorious In The Battle Of Gia Cuc

The ‘Battle of Gia Cuc’ was fought during the ‘Tonkin Campaign’ in which France was opposed by many like the Vietnamese and Chinese forces for the acquisition of the land. This battle lasted for two days in which France defeated the other forces.


1939

Wars

Spanish Civil War Comes To An End

The Spanish Civil War which involved the Republicans and the Nationalists came to an end in 1939. It was won by the Nationalists after their leader General Francisco Franco was successful in capturing Madrid and most part of Spain.


1941

Wars

British Royal Navy Destroyed Italian Battleships During The Battle Of Cape Matapan

During World War II, the ‘Battle of Cape Matapan was from March 27-29. In this battle, heavy cruisers and destroyers belonging to the Italian army were shattered by the Royal Navy headed by Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham.


1942

Wars

St Nazaire Raid

In 1942, during WWII, the Combined Operations Headquarters along with the Royal Navy carried on an amphibious operation. The ‘Louis Joubert Lock’, St Nazaire, was one of the most important docks in the German-occupied France and this was the reason why it was the target for the assault.


1951

Wars

Victory Of French Union Forces At The Battle Of Mạo Khê

The ‘First Indochina War’ was a conflict between French army and Việt Minh forces. The ‘Battle of Mạo Khê’ constituted one of the major struggles of the war. The French forces under the guidance of Commander Jean de Lattre de Tassigny registered victory over the Việt Minh forces which was led by General Võ Nguyên Giáp.


1920

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The Disastrous Palm Sunday Tornado

The Palm Sunday of 1920 saw the outbreak of over 30 high velocity tornados through the Midwest and Deep South states. The tornados moved with a speed exceeding 60 miles/ hour, killing hundreds of people and injuring thousands.


1970

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Gediz Earthquake

An earthquake with a magnitude of 7 (approx.) hit Gediz, a Turkish town and claimed many lives and devastated a large number of properties. The epicenter of the quake was 39.2 degrees North and 29.5 degrees East.


1979

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Accident Caused Nuclear Meltdown At Three Mile Island

The ‘Three Mile Island Accident’ occurred when a reactor was overheated at Unit 2 of the nuclear plant. This accident caused a meltdown resulting in the release of radioactive gases in the environment.


1991

Disasters & Natural Calamities

US Embassy In Moscow Charred

The Embassy of the United States, Moscow caught fire for the fourth time in 1991. Though no causalities were reported, the fire damaged many important documents.


2005

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Sumatra Earthquake

The ‘Sumatra Earthquake’ of 2005 shook the earth with a magnitude of 8.7. This disaster followed the devastating tsunami which occurred a year ago and killed around 1300 people. The epicenter was found to be 2.3 degrees North and 97.1 degrees East, which is in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.


1984

Sports

NFL Team Baltimore Colts Transformed Into Indianapolis Colts

This NFL team existed as ‘Baltimore Colts’ as it was based in Baltimore, Maryland from 1953-83. In 1984, the team moved to Indianapolis, Indiana and has been known as ‘Indianapolis Colts’ since then.


1990

Sports

Sports Personality Jesse Owens Was Awarded Congressional Gold Medal Posthumously

Four-time Olympic Gold medalist Jesse Owens was regarded as “perhaps the greatest and most famous athlete in track and field history”. This great athlete received a posthumous honour when President George H. W. Bush awarded him with the ‘Congressional Gold Medal’ in 1990.


1913

Literature & Entertainment

Inclusion Of Guatemala In The Buenos Aires Copyright Treaty

The copyright treaty called the ‘Buenos Aires Convention’ was signed in 1910, and it grants the creator of the work due recognition. In 1913, Guatemala too signed the treaty and thus, was included in it.


1964

Literature & Entertainment

Installation Of The Beatles Wax Statue At Madame Tussauds Museum

The renowned English rock band ‘The Beatles’ formed in 1960 has influenced the world of music to a great extent. These immortal stars’ wax statues were installed at the ‘Madame Tussauds Museum’ in 1964.


1982

Literature & Entertainment

Arrest Of David Crosby

Notable American guitarist David Crosby was arrested on charges of possessing drugs and illegal weapons. He had to spend nine months in the prison owing to these charges.


1994

Literature & Entertainment

BBC Radio 5 Shut Down And Launch Of BBC Radio 5 Live

The radio network ‘BBC Radio 5’ was launched in 1990 and aired programs on education, sports and for children. However, this was closed in 1994, and the new network ‘BBC Radio 5 Live’ was launched which broadcasts news, interviews and other live programs.


1566

Trivia

Foundation Of Valletta, Capital City Of Malta, Laid

49th Grand Master of the Order of Malta Jean Parisot de, laid the foundation of Valletta, the capital city of Malta. The city has buildings belonging to that era till date.


1776

Trivia

Presidio Of San Francisco Was Discovered

The Presidio of San Francisco, which served as a military base, was built by the Spanish army headed by José Joaquín Moraga. The site for this was found by explorer and governor of New Mexico Juan Bautista de Anza in 1776.


1797

Trivia

Washing Machine Patented By Nathaniel Briggs

The initial models of washing machines had to be operated manually, and were mostly made with wood. But in 1797, Nathaniel Briggs invented the first ever special-purpose washing machine and the United States granted him a patent for this.


1802

Trivia

Discovery Of Asteroid 2 Pallas

Discovered in 1802 by German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers, this was the second asteroid after Ceres. However, during that time, this and all other asteroids were thought to be planets.


1865

Trivia

Prohibition Of Outdoor Advertising In New York

Outdoor advertising such as writing on walls, rocks and the like were thought to mar scenic beauty. Thus, in 1865, the State of New York passed laws which put restrictions on such outdoor advertisements.


1885

Trivia

Formation Of Salvation Army In The US

‘Salvation Army’ is a religious body formed by William Booth. This organization which presently has its branches in around 127 countries was formally established in the US in 1885.


1889

Trivia

Yngsjö Murder

This is one of the most talked about murder cases in Sweden, which was executed in 1889. In this Hanna Johansdotter was murdered by her mother-in-law and husband as the duo was involved in an illicit relationship.


1910

Trivia

Henri Fabre Flew The First Seaplane

The first person to fly a seaplane was French inventor Henri Fabre. This aircraft known as the ‘Fabre Hydravion’ by many was designed in a way which allowed it to launch from water with its inbuilt power.


1915

Trivia

Death Of First American At The Time Of WWI

This was the first incident during World War I that an American citizen lost his life. The German U-boat U-28 attacked the British steamship RMS Falaba, killing hundreds of people, including an American mining engineer named Leon Chester Thrasher. Thus, the occurrence came to be known as ‘Thrasher incident’.


1938

Trivia

Use Of ECT As A Cure For Mental Illness By Italian Psychiatrist

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the well-known treatments of psychiatric problems and this was first used by Italian neurologist Ugo Cerletti. After thorough research and experimentation involving animals, in 1938, Ugo and his co-psychiatrist Lucio Bini applied this to a human.


1941

Trivia

Preparations For Construction Of Willow Run Plant Began

Vast stretches of lands were being cleared to construct the ‘Willow Run’ factory. This was owned by the ‘Ford Motor Company’ and it was dedicated to the manufacture of ammunitions, particularly the heavy bomber named B-24 Liberator.


1967

Trivia

American Travelers Visit North Vietnam Going Against A Ban

Defying the rules imposed by the US government against traveling to North Vietnam, a group of American pacifists known as the ‘Quaker Action Group’ sponsored a trip to the region with a supply of medicines worth $10,000.


1968

Trivia

First Crash Of F-111 Aircraft

General Dynamics F-111 was a combat aircraft which was manufactured in 1967 and went on trial the following year. In the initial testing period there were around three losses which crashed in Vietnam due to technical faults in the machine.


1969

Trivia

Poet Giorgos Seferis’ Speech Against The Junta In Greece

Nobel laureate Giorgos Seferis worked with the ‘Greek Foreign Service’ and was an envoy to the UK. The Regime of the Colonels (Greek military junta of 1967–74) came to power in Greece and thus, followed their undue reign. Two years later, Seferis expressed his views about the junta and said “This Anomaly must end”.


1978

Trivia

US Supreme Court’s Verdict In Stump V. Sparkman Case On Judicial Immunity

The Stump v. Sparkman case was one of the best known cases in which a lawsuit was filed against the judge for ordering sterilization of a 15-year-old girl without the knowledge or consent of the family. The judge was however, not sued as keeping in consideration judicial immunity.


1999

Trivia

Murder Of Freaky Tah

Rapper Raymond Rogers (Freaky Tah) who was a member of the hip hop group ‘Lost Boyz’ was murdered by a person named Kelvin Jones. At the time of his death he was 27 years old, thus, he too belongs to the well-known ’27 Club’.


People Born This Day

Cuno Amiet
(1868-1961)
Painter, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor [ Swiss ]
Alexander Grothendieck
(1928-2014)
Mathematician [ French ]
Reba McEntire
(1955-)
[ American ]
Vince Vaughn
(1970-)
[ American ]
Daniel Dennett
(1942-)
[ American ]
Julia Stiles
(1981-)
Actress [ American ]
Lady Gaga
(1986-)
Singer-songwriter [ American ]
Mario Vargas Llosa
(1936-)
Writer [ Peruvian ]
Saint Teresa of Avila
(1515-1582)
Saint [ Spanish ]
Laura Chinchilla
(1959-)
Former President of Costa Rica [ Costa Rican ]
Thomas Clarkson
(1760-1846)
Abolitionist [ British ]
Lester R. Brown
(1934-)
Environmentalist [ American ]
Aristide Briand
(1862-1932)
Prime Minister [ French ]
Maxim Gorky
(1868-1936)
Writer & Dramatist [ Russian ]
Jerome Isaac Friedman
(1930-)
Physicist [ American ]
Rodrigo Duterte
(1945-)
President of Philippines [ Filipino ]
Zoella
(1990-)
Fashion and Beauty Vlogger [ British ]
Alexander Burriss
(1990-)
Internet personality, YouTuber [ American ]
Kate Gosselin
(1975-)
Reality TV Personality [ American ]
Lily Marston
(1990-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Heidi Powell
(1982-)
Author [ American ]
Erin Robinson
(1985-)
YouTuber, Entertainment Host [ American ]


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