28th July In History

We have a unit of measurement for almost everything, both tangible and intangible. Likewise, if we think of measuring history, what is that one thing which will help us keep a count of how far we have come? It is none but the events which have occurred in the past that have given us a proper measure of how much we have grown ever since, as a civilization and what all we have gained or lost in the process. Today’s tech-savvy era for instance, has its roots in the past and only when we know about the bygones, we learn what inspired such inventions. The events which were instrumental in the making of history are like a well-knit story and when we get into the details, we know how engrossing it is. The occurrences of 28th July hold a treasure of such stories which tell us of upheavals as well as the settling of major socio-political eruptions. On the one hand, it talks about beginning of new regime, while on the other it tells us the end of the age-old crusades. Therefore, without any further delay, let’s take a plunge into the happenings of 28th July and enrich our grey matter.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 28th July



1540

Politics

Thomas Cromwell Was Killed

Thomas Cromwell was a member in the court of King Henry VIII of England and was appointed as the chief minister. On 28th July, 1540, Cromwell, was killed at the orders of the king as he was indicted of treachery.


1808

Politics

The New Sultan Of The Ottoman Empire

Mahmud II was one of the most renowned rulers of the Ottoman Empire and it was him who incorporated westernized methods of ruling in his empire. He ascended the throne on 28th July, 1808, and during his reign, the empire flourished and remained united.


1821

Politics

Peru Gains Independence

Peru was a Spanish colony and in early 1800s there began a war for independence which included many conflicts, big and small. On 28th July, 1821, Argentine commander José de San Martín headed towards Lima and announced Peru to be independent.


1868

Politics

U.S Constitutional Amendment

On this day in 1868, the 14th amendment of the Constitution of the United States was adopted. According to this amendment, the Africa–Americans will be given the citizenship as well as all the other rights which they should be entitled to as a citizen.


1932

Politics

Removal Of The Bonus Army From Washington

The Bonus Army, as it is popularly known as, was a group formed with World War I veterans and their families. This group assembled at Washington D.C. in 1932 to ask for compensation for their participation in the war. However, on 28th July, Herbert Hoover, the US President, asked the US Army to remove this group from the place.


2000

Politics

Prisoners Released From The Maze

On this day, 80 prisoners were released from the HM Prison Maze, Northern Ireland in the year 2000. Then County Antrim jail released 26 loyalist paramilitaries and 52 republicans, with which the ‘Good Friday Agreement’ came to a conclusion.


1933

Politics

Soviet Spain Diplomacy

The diplomatic relation between the USSR and Spain had its roots in the 1520s, but with the death of Peter II of Russia and the accession of throne by Anna of Russia put a rift in the ties. There were many attempts to mend the relationship after this, and one such was made on 28th July, 1933, when the countries exchanged telegrams regarding the establishment of diplomatic relations.


2005

Politics

Provisional Irish Republican Army Ends It Crusade

The Provisional Irish Republican Army or the Irish Republican Army is a paramilitary group which wanted to separate Northern Ireland from the domain of United Kingdom. This battle, which began decades ago, came to an end on this day in 2005, after they announced the end of the armed campaign.


1943

Politics

End Of Coffee Rationing

Following the onset of World War II, the Roosevelt administration imposed restrictions on various commodities, coffee being one of them. On 28th July, 1943, the US Premier ended coffee rationing which until allowed a person one pound of coffee every five weeks.


1945

Politics

The Approval Of The UN Charter

The ‘United Nations Charter’ was signed in June 1945 at ‘San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center’ by 50 of the original member countries of the organization. The charter was approved a month later on 28th July by the U.S. Senate and eventually, the organization was established in October.


1972

Politics

Nationwide Dock Strike

The National Docks Delegate Conference of the Transport and General Workers Union rejected a proposal put forward by the committee, which led to a nationwide dock strike on 28th July, 1972. The proposal meant the industries will hire cheap laborers from container firms.


1988

Politics

Paddy Ashdown Wins

The Social and Liberal Democrats party was formed in 1988, and on 28th July the same year, Paddy Ashdown was elected as its first leader. Ashdown was an MP for Yeovil, and in the Liberal Democrats election he earned a landslide victory by garnering 71.9% of the total votes.


1364

Wars

Battle Of Cascina

The Battle of Cascina was fought on 28th July, 1364 among the troops of the Italian cities Pisa and Florence. The Pisans were led by John Hawkwood, while Galeotto Malatesta headed the Florence army. The battle was won by Florence and acclaimed artist Michelangelo was asked to make a painting signifying this victory, but the work was never completed.


1776

Wars

Continental Army Arrives At Horn’s Hook

During the American Revolutionary War, ‘Horn’s Hook Fort’ was built on the Manhattan Island by the British to protect the island from Continental Army attack. However, on this day, the Continental Army lead by Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent and Colonel Israel Hutchinson reached the battery, but were defeated by the British army headed by Admiral Richard and General William Howe.


1809

Wars

Battle Of Talavera

During the Peninsular War, the Battle of Talavera was fought jointly by an Anglo-Spanish force along with Spanish army, commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley and General Cuesta, against the French who had captured Madrid. This battle which went on for two days, concluded with the defeat of the French army on 28th July, 1809.


1864

Wars

Battle Of Ezra Church

During the American Civil War, William Tecumseh Sherman was a General in the Union Army, and with his tactful supervision, helped his troops defend Atlanta. On this day, the Confederate soldiers, under the command of General John Bell Hood, made an attempt to capture Atlanta, but like the other attempts, this too was nullified by the Union forces on this day in 1864.


1914

Wars

Declaration Of War By Austria-Hungary

The Archduke, Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serbian terrorist group ‘Black Hand’. A month after the occurrence of this incident, on 28th July, 1914, the combined power of Austria and Hungary, declared a war against Serbia.


1915

Wars

Occupation Of Haiti

The President of Haiti was assassinated in 1915 and this led to socio-political unrest in the country. In order to bring the situation under control, the United States President Woodrow Wilson sent US troops to Haiti on 28th July, 1915. This development came to be known as the United States Occupation of Haiti.


1942

Wars

Order No. 227 Issued

During World War II, the Soviet troops were staring defeat, because, instead of fighting back the German advances, the Soviet forces were retreating back. This was when the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin issued Order No. 227, on this day in 1942, which was also known as the ‘Not one step back!’


1943

Wars

Firestorm In Hamburg

During World War II, the German city of Hamburg suffered immense loss including lives of thousands after a firestorm broke out. The cause of this storm was intensive bombing by the Royal Air Force and US Army Air Forces, fueled by the hot weather.


1965

Wars

U.S Army Sent To Vietnam

During the Vietnam War, the United States supported South Vietnam in the struggle against North Vietnam. Time and again, the U.S sent troops to Vietnam to strengthen the power of South Vietnam and on 28th July, 1965, following the orders of President Lyndon B. Johnson, the U.S forces were sent to Vietnam, increasing the number of troops to 125,000.


1972

Wars

‘CIA’ Report On US Bombing

During the Vietnam War, the Soviet, which was supporting North Vietnam, indicted that the U.S had bombed North Vietnam, with an intention to ruin the dikes and dams in the Asian country. As an answer to these accusations, the Nixon administration put forward a report by ‘CIA’, which said that the attacks did cause some harm to the dikes but it was not deliberate.


1938

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Hawaii Clipper Lost

‘Pan American Airways’ wanted to provide its passengers a plane equipped with several luxuries, therefore, 3 flying boats were constructed which could land on water. One of them was called Hawaii Clipper and on 28th July, 1938, on its way to Guam to Manila, this plane disappeared along with 6 passengers and 9 crew members on board.


1945

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Military Plane Crashes Into Empire State Building

On this day in 1945, a US military plane ‘B-25’ was on its way to LaGuardia Airport, New York City from New Bedford, Massachusetts. The day being too foggy, made the plane crash into the Empire State Building, resulting in the death of 14 people.


1976

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The Tangshan Earthquake

On 28th July, 1976, the Tangshan region of People’s Republic of China was devastated by an earthquake which had a magnitude of around 7.8 to 8.2. The death toll recorded was more than 242,700 and the injured summed up to 164,851, which made this tragedy the biggest earthquake of the last century.


2008

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Grand Pier, Weston-Super-Mare Fire

‘Grand Pier, Weston-super-Mar’ is a resort in North Somerset, which suffered huge losses after it caught fire in the early hours of 28th July, 2008. The fire began at the north tower, but the fire alarm did not respond to it and the fire station was called only when a person saw the blaze.


2010

Disasters & Natural Calamities

‘Airblue Flight 202’ Crashes

The plane ‘Airblue Flight 202’ took off from the ‘Jinnah International Airport’, Karachi and headed towards the ‘Benazir Bhutto International Airport’, Islamabad. Unfortunately, the plane crashed at Margalla Hills, as undesirable weather conditions disrupted the contact between crew and the traffic control unit. This is considered the worst air accident of Pakistan till date, which killed all the 146 passengers as well as the 6 crew members.


1935

Sports

Tazio Nuvolari’s Remarkable Victory

Tazio Nuvolari was an Italian racer who participated in the Grosser Preis von Deutschland (German Grand Prix) held on 28th July, 1935 and emerged victorious. In the contest, his competitors were Germans with the best of vehicles, but Nuvolari driving his ‘Alfa Romeo’ was the first one to reach the finish line.


1984

Sports

Summer Olympics Opens

The Summer Olympics of 1984 was hosted by Los Angeles, California and the opening of the event occurred on 28th July. The two cities competing to host the event were Los Angeles and Tehran, but the latter declined to bid because of the ongoing political issues in Iran.


1991

Sports

A Spectacular Performance By Dennis Martinez

Dennis Martinez, a former baseball player, was the first Nicaraguan player to participate in the Major League Baseball. On 28th July, 1991, he pitched a perfect game for the ‘Montreal Expos’ in the Major League Baseball against the ‘Los Angeles Dodgers’ season.


1997

Sports

Les Ferdinand Enters ‘Tottenham Hotspur F.C.’

After playing for the ‘Newcastle United FC’, Les Ferdinand joined the ‘Tottenham Hotspur FC’ on this day on 1997. This was the team which Ferdinand supported as a child and the selection was a dream come true moment for him.


2000

Sports

Ian Thorpe Wins Gold

Ian Thorpe, an Australian swimmer, skilled in freestyle, was allergic to chlorine as a child, but overcame this challenge to become one of the finest swimmers of the country. He participated in the Summer Olympics and made his country proud by winning maximum number of gold and on this day in 2000, he became the first swimmer to win 6 gold medals in a single World Championship.


1973

Literature & Entertainment

Summer Jam At Watkins Glen

A rock festival known as the ‘Summer Jam’ was organized at the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Raceway on this day in 1973. In that event, renowned bands such as ‘The Band’, ‘Allman Brothers Band’ and ‘Grateful Dead’ performed and the show made headlines for the unbelievable crowd turnout and even earned a place in the Guinness Book of World Records.


1978

Literature & Entertainment

‘National Lampoon's Animal House’ Releases

This movie which was a parody about the groups of 1960s was directed by John Landis and starred John Belushi, John Vernon, Tim Matheson, Donald Sutherland, Thomas Hulce and Verna Bloom. It was released on 28th July, 1978 and went on to become a huge box-office hit, and a benchmark in the career of John Landis.


1571

Trivia

Foundation Of Laguna Province Laid

Interestingly, during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the weaker sections of the society were shielded by the powerful ones and it was known as Encomienda. Following this relation, the Spaniards established the province of La Laguna on this day in 1571, which is now known as the Laguna province.


1814

Trivia

P B Shelley Elopes With Mary Godwin

One of the most renowned poets of the Romantic era, Percy Bysshe Shelley had a dramatic personal life. He was married to Harriet Westbrook when he fell in love with Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin. On this day in 1814, he eloped with Mary Godwin to Switzerland and the couple later tied the knot.


1855

Trivia

‘USS Constellation’ Commissioned

The ‘USS Constellation’ was built utilizing the materials of the ship by the same name which was dismantled the previous year. This warship was created by John Lenthall and on this day in 1855, it was commissioned. On its maiden journey, the vessel was led by Captain Charles H. Bell.


1866

Trivia

Vinnie Ream Hired By US Government

Vinnie Ream was one of the most renowned American sculptors and the statue of Abraham Lincoln, which she had created, helped her gain a lot of fame. She was given the contract of building a marble statue of Lincoln on 28th July, 1866 and Vinnie was only 18 years old back then.


1896

Trivia

Miami Incorporated

On this historic day in 1896, Miami was incorporated into the state of Florida. A group of 344 voters which included only men gathered at a building in Miami Avenue and with their votes the place was incorporated as The City of Miami.


1935

Trivia

‘Boeing B-17’ Maiden Flight

The ‘United States Army Air Corps’ (USAAC) wanted a multiengine bomber and to fulfill this requirement, aviation giant ‘Boeing’ built the aircraft which they called ‘Model 299’. On this day in 1935, this plane took off on its first flight, and after reporter Richard Smith termed it the ‘Flying Fortress’, the company soon adopted the name for all these aircrafts.


1948

Trivia

Battle Of London Airport

On 28th July, 1948, a few miscreants had planned to rob a treasure kept at London’s Heathrow Airport, which consisted of gold and other precious goods amounting to millions. However, the Metropolitan Police ‘Flying Squad’ received information about this impending robbery and their immediate action nullified the attempts of the burglars.


1955

Trivia

‘Union Mundial Pro Interlingua’ Comes Into Existence

Interlingua is an auxiliary language which came into existence in mid 1900s, and it was developed to provide a unique mode of communication to the scientists. On 28th July, 1955, the first meeting regarding this language took place in Tours, France and on the same day, the organization ‘Union Mundial Pro Interlingua’ (World Interlingua Union) was established.


1959

Trivia

Postcode System Begins In UK

After a trial conducted in Norwich relating to postcode, on the 28th of July, 1959, the entire United Kingdom was fragmented into postal districts. This was done to improve the efficiency of the mailing system, but today the postcode has many more purposes.


1974

Trivia

Formation Of Alpha Group

Alpha Group or Directorate “A” is a Russian organization, which is a wing of the country’s armed forces. It was formed on this day in 1974, and looks into concerns related to violence in public places.


1976

Trivia

Lockheed Sr-71 A/B Blackbird Creates Record

Lockheed Sr-71 A/B Blackbird was a long range, Mach 3+ manned aircraft used for reconnaissance by the United States Air Force. On this day in 1976, the Blackbird created a fastest flying record by clocking a speed of 2,193.16 mph.


1977

Trivia

Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Becomes Functional

The 800-mile long Trans-Alaska Pipeline System stretched from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to Valdez, Alaska and included 11 pumping stations in between. This pipeline was used to convey oil for the first time on this day in 1977.


1982

Trivia

Gun Control Law Of San Francisco

On this day in 1982, a law was passed in San Francisco restricting the sale, purchase and possession of handguns. This law was however, challenged and annulled because it did not go in accordance with the state constitution.


1996

Trivia

Kennewick Man Remains Discovered

On this day in 1996, the skeleton of a prehistoric man was found on the banks of the Columbia River, Kennewick. This is apparently the most ancient skeleton of a human found till date and is known as the Kennewick Man.


2002

Trivia

Quecreek Mine Rescue

In July 2002, a group of nine miners were working in the Quecreek Mine, when they broke into a wall and got trapped in a compartment which was four feet high. The place where they were trapped was 240 feet below the mine they were working in. The miners were stuck there for 77 hours, after which the rescue operation save them.


2006

Trivia

Mel Gibson Arrested

An officer named James Mee belonging to the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department pulled over acclaimed actor Mel Gibson and arrested him on charges of drunken driving. Gibson also possessed an open container containing alcohol, which is against the law of the United States.


People Born This Day

Jackie Kennedy
(1929-1994)
Wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy [ American ]
Karl Popper
(1902-1994)
Philosopher [ British ]
Hugo Chavez
(1954-2013)
Former President of Venezuela [ Venezuelan ]
Marcel Duchamp
(1887-1968)
Artist [ French ]
Jim Davis
(1945-)
Actor [ American ]
Terry Fox
(1958-1981)
[ Canadian ]
Alberto Fujimori
(1938-)
Former President of Peru [ Peruvian ]
Robert Hooke
(1635-1703)
Philosopher [ British ]
Robert Hughes
(1938-2012)
Art Critic, Writer [ Australian ]
Richard Wright (Musician)
(1943-2008)
[ British ]
Sir Garfield Sobers
(1936-)
One of the finest all-rounders in cricket [ Barbadian ]
Joaquín Torres García
(1874-1949)
Artist [ Uruguayan ]
Albert Namatjira
(1902-1959)
Artist [ Australian ]
Beatrix Potter
(1866-1943)
Author [ British ]
Charles H. Townes
(1915-2015)
Physicist [ American ]
Baruch Samuel Blumberg
(1925-2011)
Physician, Geneticist [ American ]
Pavel Cherenkov
(1904-1990)
Physicist [ Russian ]
Victoria Baldesarra
(1998-)
Dancer, actress [ Canadian ]
Brandon Calvillo
(1994-)
Vine video star [ American ]
Soulja Boy
(1990-)
Rapper [ American ]
Spencer Boldman
(1992-)
Actor [ American ]
Lori Loughlin
(1964-)
Actress [ American ]
Cher Lloyd
(1993-)
Singer & Songwriter [ British ]
Brad Simpson
(1995-)
Singer [ British ]
Anne Wojcicki
(1973-)
Genomics Pioneer [ American ]


People Died This Day

Johann Sebastian Bach
(1685-1750)
Composer [ German ]
William James Mayo
(1861-1939)
Physician and Surgeon [ American ]
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi
(1678-1741)
Composer [ Italian ]
Abraham Cowley
(1618-1667)
Poet [ British ]
Cyrano de Bergerac
(1619-1655)
Dramatist and Playwright [ French ]
Otto Hahn
(1879-1968)
Chemist [ German ]
Abraham Pais
(1918-2000)
Physicist [ American ]
Francis Crick
(1916-2004)
Co-discoverer of the Structure of the DNA Molecule, Nobel Prize Winner [ British ]
Thomas Cromwell
(1485-1540)
English statesman [ British ]
Maximilien de Robespierre
(1758-1794)
Influential Figure of the French Revolution [ French ]
Allvar Gullstrand
(1862-1930)
Ophthalmologist [ Swedish ]
Archer Martin
(1910-2002)
Chemist [ British ]
Marie Dressler
(1868-1934)
Actress [ Canadian ]
George Seaton
(1911-1979)
Screenwriter, Film Director [ American ]
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