25th March In History

Queen Victoria once said, "Great events make me quiet and calm; it is only trifles that irritate my nerves." But sometimes even the seemingly mundane event can have a life-changing impact. Had Newton not pondered about the apple which fell on his head, the world would have remained unknown to the concept of gravity. Each incident is connected in one way or the other to the happenings of the past and the ones that will occur in the future. We cannot isolate history and make history. It is important to learn from the mistakes that have been made earlier so that they are not repeated. The day March 25th is one where many significant events have occurred and it looks like a good place to start while we on our quest to make history. From the discovery of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn to the ascension of Robert the Bruce in Scotland, this day has also stood witness to catastrophic earthquakes and man-made disasters. It was on March 25th that Pakistan defeated the national cricket team of England to clinch the Cricket World Cup. For more such interesting tidbits from the past, tune in to Today in History!


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 25th March



1199

Politics

Richard I Is Wounded By A Crossbow Bolt Which Led To His Death In April

King Richard I of England gained a reputation of being a brave warrior and earned the moniker ‘The Lion Heart'. However his death was caused by an injury caused by a crossbow. The offender who shot the missile was a boy whose father was killed by Richard. Thus it became common lore that Richard was the lion who was slain by an ant.
Image Credit : http://maryannbernal.blogspot.in/2013_03_01_archive.html#.VroqD1h97IU


1306

Politics

Robert The Bruce Coroneted As King Of Scotland

On March 25, 1306, Robert the Bruce was declared the King of Scotland and began his reign. He was held in high regard among peers and foes alike for his fighting skills. Robert also waged the first war of Scottish Independence against England.
Image Credit : https://in.pinterest.com/scubare/scottish-heroes-and-legends/


1802

Politics

The Treaty Of Amiens Is Signed Between The French Republic And The Great Britain

On March 25, 1802, Joseph Bonaparte, the elder sibling of Napoleon Bonaparte and British Army Officer Marquess Cornwallis signed a Definitive Peace Treaty thus putting an end to the long-running hostilities between France and England. However the treaty signed in Amiens stayed in effect only for a year.
Image Credit : http://tomatobubble.com/id998.html


1807

Politics

UK Parliament Passes Slave Trade Act

The United Kingdom Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act on this day in 1807 thus paving the path for abolishing slave trade. However it was not until two decades later that slavery was actually eradicated.
Image Credit : http://blogs.channel4.com/factcheck/factcheck-qa-britain-pay-role-slave-trade/21671


1894

Politics

Coxey's Army March On Washington, D.C. During The Great Depression

During the second year of the Great Depression in the United States, Ohio businessmen Jacob Coxey rallied unemployed workers to organize a protest march from Massillon to Washington D.C. Dubbed as Coxey's Army a group of hundred men started the march on this day in 1984 and it passed Pitttsburgh, Becks Run and Pennsylvania before reaching its final destination.
Image Credit : http://history1800s.about.com/od/organizedlabor/ss/Coxeys-Army-1894-March.htm


1917

Politics

The Georgian Orthodox Church Restores Its Abolished Autocephaly In Russia

On March 25, 1917 the Georgian Church restored its autocephalous status in the Russian Empire after the death of Tsar Nicholas II. However the Russian Orthodox Church did not approve of the changes.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Georgian_Orthodox_Church


1918

Politics

The Belarusian People's Republic Is Established

Thwarting the Communist regime, the Belarusian state declared its independence and on this day in 1918 the Belarusian People’s Republic was established. However the democratic state ceased to exist as the land of Minsk was captured by Bolshevik Russian forces.
Image Credit : https://charter97.org/en/news/2013/3/25/67025/


1924

Politics

Second Hellenic Republic Is Proclaimed In Greece

After Greece was defeated by Turkey in the Asia Minor Campaign, the former witnessed a new era of governance. Named as the Second Hellenic Republic, it commenced on March 25, 1924.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Second_Hellenic_Republic


1941

Politics

The Kingdom Of Yugoslavia Signs The Tripartite Pact

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia signed the Tripartite Pact thus swearing its allegiance to the Axis Powers on March 25, 1941. While the government made friends with the Axis powers, the Royal Yugoslav Air Force led a coup d’état against the government. Italy and Germany responded to the coup by launching attacks on Yugoslavia.
Image Credit : http://www.bandofbrotherstour.com/yugoslaviajoinsaxis.html


1965

Politics

The Third Selma To Montgomery March Concludes

The historic march led by Martin Luther King, Jr. from Selma to Montgomery finally concluded at the steps of State Capitol Building on March 25, 1965. It was also on this day that Martin delivered his famous speech 'How Long, Not Long'.
Image Credit : http://kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1965_03_25.1.html


1988

Politics

The Candle Demonstration In Bratislava Against The Communist Regime In Czechoslovakia

The Candle Demonstrations of 1988 was first in a series of political and non-violent protests against the authoritarian Communist regime in Czechoslovakia. As many as five thousand protestors gathered in the capital city of Bratislava on 25 March 1988 to demand religious freedom.
Image Credit : http://seanmunger.com/2014/03/25/the-beginning-of-the-end-of-communism-the-bratislava-candle-demonstration/


1996

Politics

An 81-Day-Long Standoff Between The Anti-Government Group Montana Freemen And Law Enforcement Near J

Activists of the Montana Freemen movement grabbed the attention of media for their ant-government ideology which declined to accept the authority of the federal system and considered individual sovereignty above all. On March 25, 1996 the group began an armed standoff with the officials of the FBI that continued for the next 81 days.
Image Credit : http://billingsgazette.com/montana-freemen-standoff/image_92263f24-bd57-5b36-b40c-9fca66f92b8f.html


2006

Politics

Riot Police Clashes With Protestors Opposing Alexander Lukashenko’s Reelection As President Of Belar

After the results of the 2006 presidential election in Belarus were out declaring a landslide victory for Alexander Lukashenko, nation-wide protests were organized. The protestors consisted mainly of members of the opposition party who claimed the elections were rigged. Riot police were deployed to curb the protests and on March 25, demonstrators clashed with the police.
Image Credit : http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/dec/20/belarus-protest-alleged-vote-rigging


1971

Wars

Operation Lam Son 719 Abandoned By Republic Of Vietnam

The Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos was strategic for providing supplies to the People's Army of Vietnam for providing supplies during the Vietnam War. The army of the Republic of Vietnam launched Operation Lam Son 719 with the aim to cut off the Ho Chi Minh trail thus weakening the enemy. On March 25, 1971 forces of the Republic of Vietnam abandoned the operation.
Image Credit : http://vnafmamn.com/lamson_719.html


1971

Wars

Operation Searchlight By The Pakistan Armed Forces Commences

As the revolutionaries in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) gained momentum, the Pakistan Army decided to employ the military troops to curb them. Thus came into being Operation Searchlight and on March 25, 1971 orders were issued to undertake action as planned against the civilians.
Image Credit : http://www.storypick.com/indo-pak-war-1971/


1865

Wars

Confederate Forces Seize Fort Stedman From The Union

At daybreak on March 25, 1865 the Confederate forces launched an attack on Fort Stedman and were successful in capturing 1000 yards of trenches. However by the time the day came to an end, the Union reinforcements arrived and the Confederates were forced to retreat.
Image Credit : http://weaponsandwarfare.com/2015/10/18/confederates-attack-fort-stedman-virginia/


1911

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Fire In Triangle Shirtwaist Factory New York Kills 146

The Triangle Shirtwaist factory in New York City caught fire on this day in 1911, thus causing one of the deadliest industrial hazards of the time. The factory occupied three floors, from the eighth to tenth in the Asch Building and it was also common practice to lock stairways in order to avoid theft. This caused the workers to remain trapped in the flaming building. As many as 146 people lost their lives in the ghastly incident.
Image Credit : http://clickamericana.com/eras/1910s/146-die-in-triangle-shirtwaist-factory-fire-1911


1947

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Centralia Mine Disaster Kills 111

A coal mine explosion which took place on March 25, 1947, in Centralia, Illinois claimed the lives of 111 people. Investigations revealed the cause of explosion to be an unburdened shot which resulted in the coal dust catching fire.
Image Credit : http://wakeupgvrnmnt.altervista.org/10-recent-and-deadly-industrial-disasters-in-america/


1990

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The Happy Land Fire Killed 87 People In New York City

What started as a lover's tiff, ended in the loss of 87 deaths on this fateful day, in 1990. Happy Land was a social club but building violations caused difficulties in obtaining a license for it. However a group of young people were partying at the illegal club when the fire started near the staircase the only entrance to the building. Apparently Lydia Feliciano's estranged boyfriend had started the fire to get back at Lydia, the coat check girl at the club.
Image Credit : http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/jealous-ex-boyfriend-fury-killed-87-happy-land-fire-20-years-article-1.173625


1914

Sports

The Aris Football Club Is Founded In Thessaloniki

On March 25, 1941, in the city of Thessaloniki in Greece came into being the Aris Thessaloniki football Club. The club derived its name from the God of War, Ares and this three time champions of the Greece team has the record of being unbeaten at home in European tournaments since 1968.
Image Credit : http://1080plus.com/vR-orDf9NfI.video


1992

Sports

Pakistan Wins The Cricket World Cup To Become World Champions For The First Time

The 1992, ICC Cricket World Cup was hosted by Australia and New Zealand and was the fifth World Cup to be conducted. The teams of Pakistan and England battled for the trophy in the final on March 25, and in what was a nail-biting event, the former emerged victorious.
Image Credit : http://blogs.tribune.com.pk/tag/cricket-world-cup-1992/


1924

Sports

Montreal Canadiens Beat Calgary Tigers To Win The Stanley Cup

In the finals of 1924 Stanley Cup playoffs the Montreal Canadiens were up against the Calgary Tigers. The Montreals defeated the Tigers in a clean sweep in the 2 games which took place on March 22 and March 25 respectively. The score of the first game was 6-1 where as in the second game the Montreals clinched the series with a 3-0 win.
Image Credit : http://hockeygods.com/images/7092-Montreal_Canadiens___Stanley_Cup_Champions___1924___Globe_Jersey


1958

Sports

Sugar Ray Robinson Is 1st Boxing Champ To Win The Title Five Times

On March 25, 1958 ace boxer Sugar Ray Robinson created history when he defeated Carmen Basilio in 1958 to win the middleweight championship. His win made him the first boxer ever to hold the world championship title five times.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Sugar_Ray_Robinson


1811

Literature & Entertainment

Percy Bysshe Shelley Is Rusticated From The Oxford University

Percy Bysshe Shelley the famous English poet joined the Oxford University after graduating from Eton College. However a piece of his writing titled, 'The Necessity of Atheism' caused his expulsion from the University as the content was deemed immoral and Shelley was labeled as contumate for defying laws.
Image Credit : http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Percy_Bysshe_Shelley


1957

Literature & Entertainment

Allen Ginsberg's Poem "Howl" Banned And Copies Are Seized

Alen Ginsberg's most renowned literary piece 'Howl' was embroiled in a legal soup after allegations were made that the poem contained references to homosexuality. On March 25, 1957 US Customs officers seized all copies of the book which were being imported from a printing firm in London.
Image Credit : http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Allen_Ginsberg#/overview


1961

Literature & Entertainment

Elvis Presley Performs Live On The USS Arizona

The King of Rock and Roll, Elvis Presley performed live in Honolulu for a fund raiser for constructing the USS Arizona memorial on this day in 1961. The entire sum of $54,000 collected through the concert was given to the fund and several donations came through after the show.
Image Credit : http://www.elvispresleymusic.com.au/pictures/1961-march-25.html


1969

Literature & Entertainment

John Lennon And Yoko Ono Hold Their First Bed-In For Peace

Legendary singer-songwriter John Lennon and wife Yoko Ono conducted the first 'Bed-In' on March 25, 1969 as the US troops engaged in war with Vietnam. The couple used their honeymoon to promote the message of peace and unity. A message was sent out to members of the press worldwide that read, Come to John and Yoko’s honeymoon: a bed-in, Amsterdam Hotel.' Contrary to the expectations of the paparazzi the two spoke about world peace during the week long session, every day for twelve hours.
Image Credit : Wikimedia Commons


1989

Literature & Entertainment

“Les Miserables” Opens At Auditorium Theatre, Chicago

Les Miserables, the play based on Victor Hugo's novel of the same name opened in Chicago's Auditorium Theatre on March 25, 1989. It was the 100th year of the auditorium and the musical paved way for a new era in the theater arena.
Image Credit : http://www.roosevelt.edu/ConferenceServices/Chicago/AuditoriumTheatre.aspx


421

Trivia

The Floating City Of Venice Is Founded

Historians believe that the floating city of Venice was founded on March 25, 421 as the clock struck 12 at noon. The date coincides with the Feast of the Annunciation which marks the visit of angel Gabriel to Virgin Mary when he announced that she would give birth to Jesus Christ.
Image Credit : http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destination/italy/venice/33581/Venice-city-break-guide.html


1584

Trivia

Sir Walter Raleigh Receives Royal Charter To Explore The New World

Sir Walter Raleigh was known for his quest to explore and colonize the New World and in 1584, Queen Elizabeth granted him a royal charter. According to the written grant Sir Raleigh was authorized to lead expeditions with the aim of establishing new colonies.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Walter_Raleigh#/1580s


1634

Trivia

The First Settlers Arrive In Maryland

The English first set foot upon the state of Maryland on March 25, 1634. King Charles I had granted, George Calvert (the first Lord Baltimore) the permission to establish a settlement in a region to the east of Potomac River in lieu of a share in the revenue earned. A permanent colony in Maryland was however established under the rule of the second Lord Baltimore.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/History_of_Maryland


1655

Trivia

Christiaan Huygens Discovers Saturn’s Largest Moon

The sixth planet orbiting the sun, Saturn's largest moon Titan was discovered by astronomer Christiaan Huygens on March 25, 1655. Titan is the only natural satellite which has a planet-like atmosphere surrounding it and it is also the second largest moon existing in the solar system.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Titan_(moon)


1776

Trivia

Congress Bestows Gold Medal On General George Washington

The Congressional Gold Medal is the highest civilian award presented by US Congress to individuals "who have performed an achievement that has an impact on American history and culture that is likely to be recognized as a major achievement in the recipient's field long after the achievement." On March 25, 1776 the US General George Washington became the first recipient of the award.
Image Credit : http://www.socnet.com/showthread.php?t=93319&page=2


1807

Trivia

World’s First Passenger-Carrying Railway Starts In The UK

The world's first ever passenger railway service plied between Swansea and Mumbles in Wales, United Kingdom. The service that was originally used to transport goods was converted to passenger railway service on March 25, 1807.
Image Credit : https://mumblesrailway.wordpress.com/the-railway/a-brief-history-of-the-railway-2/


1821

Trivia

Greek War Of Independence

According to the Julian calendar the Greek War of Independence began on March 25, 1821. Even though the war had started in February, this date was chosen as it was regarded auspicious. It was the day when Virgin Mary was annunciated. The intent of this manipulation was to strengthen the ties between Greek Orthodox Church and the state.
Image Credit : http://www.ahistoryofgreece.com/revolution.htm


1931

Trivia

The Scottsboro Boys Are Arrested In Alabama And Charged With Rape

A fight ensued between white and black travellers onboard a freight train between Chattanooga and Memphis, Tennessee. Several white teenagers then jumped out of the train and lodged a complaint stating that the blacks had attacked them. The sheriff ordered a search to round up all the black teenagers and in a shocking turn of events, the boys were charged of rape. This led to a series of trials being conducted over a span of four decades and highlighted the existing racial bias in the US legal system. The accused earned the moniker Scottsboro Boys during the trials.
Image Credit : http://www.answers.com/Q/What_does_hoboing_mean


1948

Trivia

The First Successful Tornado Forecast

After the first tornado caused large-scale devastation at the Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahama City, on March 20, 1948, investigative studies were conducted as to why there was such an oversight in predicting the storms. The research conducted by meteorologists Major Ernest J. Fawbush and Captain Robert C. Miller led to the successful prediction of another tornado hitting the Base. It was the first ever forecast made for a tornado and owing to precautionary measures that were put in place, there was no loss of life in the March 25th tornado.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/1948_Tinker_Air_Force_Base_tornadoes#/March_20_tornado


1949

Trivia

March Deportation Of 1949

As Stalin ascended to power he implemented several policies one of which was the collectivization of the agricultural land in the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). As a part of the process the Ministry of State Security, Soviet Union, deported as many as 92,000 people residing in the Baltic republics, to remote areas of Soviet Union starting on March 25, 1949.
Image Credit : http://guardianlv.com/2014/03/latvia-today-repaying-e1bn-loan-commemorating-1949-soviet-deportation-facing-threat-of-russian-invasion/


1957

Trivia

The European Economic Community Is Established

The nations of Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome on March 25, 1957. It led to the establishment of European Economic Community in January the following year. The community served as the predecessor of the present day European Union.
Image Credit : http://www.cvce.eu/en/obj/signing_of_the_eec_and_eaec_treaties_rome_25_march_1957-en-2a8c6a83-05e3-4e4c-a58c-0410b43c6401.html


1958

Trivia

Maiden Flight Of Canada's Avro Arrow

Avro Arrow was a pioneering delta-winged interceptor aircraft designed and manufactured by aviation giants Avro Canada. On March 25, 1958, the Arrow took its maiden flight and was considered a landmark moment in the history of aviation in the country.
Image Credit : http://forum.keypublishing.com/showthread.php?121583-And-Now-For-Something-Completely-Different-Thread-MK3/page52


1961

Trivia

Sputnik 10 With Dog Onboard Was Launched

Before the Homo sapiens landed on space, animals were used to test the ability of living organisms being able to survive under zero-gravity conditions. As a part of this on March 25, 1961 a dog named Zvezdochka ("Little Star") was sent to space onboard the Sputnik 10. Little Star later successfully returned to Earth.
Image Credit : https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/RfLr5G92j2k


1975

Trivia

King Faisal Of Saudi Arabia Is Shot And Killed

King Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia was a modernist ruler who abated the nation’s financial struggles with his reform policies. On March 25, 1975 while the King was at the majlis hearing petitions of his citizens, Prince Faisal (the king's half-brother's son) walked up to him and embraced him. In accordance to customs King Faisal leaned to kiss the prince, at which instant he was shot using a revolver by the latter. The gunshot proved fatal and ultimately the King died in hospital.
Image Credit : http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/obituaries/articles/2010/07/26/james_akins_envoy_foresaw_73_oil_embargo/


1979

Trivia

Space Shuttle Orbiter, Columbia, Delivered To The John F. Kennedy Space Center

Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia was the first of its kind, fully functional spaceplane component which was used to transport a two member crew into the space. On March 25, 1979 the orbiter was delivered to Kennedy Space Center by its developers in California.
Image Credit : http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1854.html


1987

Trivia

Supreme Court Rules In Favor Of Firms Hiring Women/Minorities Over Better Qualified Men Or White Can

The Supreme Court of United States passed a judgment on the landmark case between Reagan administration and Women's rights and Civil Rights group. The verdict which came out on March 25, 1987 stated that in order to reduce disparity among all sections of the society, firms may favor employing women and members of minorities over better qualified men and white candidates.
Image Credit : http://dailysignal.com/2015/06/07/4-liberal-myths-about-ronald-reagan-debunked/


1988

Trivia

Tyson’s Wife Demands Share In Husband’s Wealth During Divorce Suit

Legendary boxing champion Mike Tyson was married to the actress Robin Givens. However after a short while their relationship turned sour and Givens filed for a divorce. On March 25, 1988, she made a demand that she should be granted full access to Tyson’s wealth. The divorce was finalized the following year on Valentine ’s Day and the settlement amount which the actress received was close to $10 million.
Image Credit : http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2477859/Mike-Tyson-claims-wife-Robin-Givens-ruthless-mother-conspired-make-millions-memoir.html


1992

Trivia

Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev Returns To Earth After Spending 10-Months Inspace

Sergei Krikalev is a Russian cosmonaut who is the second person to spend the most amount of time in space after rocket scientist Gennady Padalka. On March 25, 1992 he returned to earth after spending ten months aboard the Mir space station.
Image Credit : http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/lusa839/post371131428/


1993

Trivia

12-Year-Old Victim Of Warrington Bomb Attacks Tim Parry Dies

The Warrington Bomb attacks on March 20, 1993 which left the citizens of England in a shock claimed the lives of 12-year-old Tim Parry. Tim was gravely injured in the second blast which occurred near a litter bin and was put off life-support on March 25.
Image Credit : https://jackjevonsnews.wordpress.com/2013/03/21/town-remembers-terrorist-attack-20-years-on/


1995

Trivia

Wikiwikiweb, The World's First Wiki Goes Live

Wikipedia came as a knight in shining armor to save the day when we had piles of projects to submit. We all have used it at some point of time or the other. But did you know when the website was made public? No points for guessing; it was March 25, 1995 when inventor Ward Cunningham made the website open for public use.
Image Credit : https://www.wikiwand.com/en/WikiWikiWeb


1996

Trivia

European Union's Veterinarian Committee Bans The Export Of British Beef

After a recommendation from the veterinary committee on March 25, 1996, the European Union released a statement which placed an embargo on the import of beef from Britain. The ban came after experts expressed concerns over the fact that the deadly prions (which cause the mad cow disease) might have entered the human food chain.
Image Credit : http://www.theweeklyobserver.com/mutant-gene-protects-brain-eating-tribesmen-from-mad-cow-like-disease/1840/


2006

Trivia

Capitol Hill Massacre

On March 25, 2006 the residents of Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood had no inclination that the day would culminate in a blood bath. The perpetrator Kyle Aaron Huff opened fire at a rave party and later when confronted by cops ended his own life. The shooting resulted in the death of six people and two others were injured.
Image Credit : http://www.seattlemet.com/articles/2014/10/1/the-10-crimes-that-shook-seattle-october-2014


People Born This Day

Bela Bartok
(1881-1945)
Composer, Pianist [ Hungarian ]
Alan John Percival Taylor
(1906-1990)
[ British ]
Aretha Franklin
(1942-)
[ American ]
Norman Borlaug
(1914-2009)
Father of the Green Revolution [ American ]
Howard Cosell
(1918-1995)
[ American ]
Paul Scott
(1920-1978)
Novelist [ British ]
Danica Patrick
(1982-)
Racing driver [ American ]
Stefka Kostadinova
(1965-)
Olympic athlete [ Bulgarian ]
David Lean
(1908-1991)
Film Director, Producer & Screenwater [ British ]
Nancy Kelly
(1921-1995)
Actress [ American ]
Katharine McPhee
(1984-)
Actress [ American ]
Elton John
(1947-)
Singer [ British ]
Simone Signoret
(1921-1985)
Actress [ French ]
Alex Dorame
(1998-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Kaelyn Petras
(1988-)
YouTuber [ American ]
Ryan Lewis
(1988-)
Hip-hop Artist & DJ [ American ]
Laz Alonso
(1974-)
Actor [ American ]
Casey Neistat
(1981-)
YouTuber, Vlogger [ American ]


People Died This Day

James Wright
(1927-1980)
Poet [ American ]
Claude Debussy
(1862-1918)
Composer [ French ]
Roland Barthes
(1915-1980)
French Literary Theorist & Philosopher [ French ]
Novalis
(1772-1801)
Philosopher & Poet [ German ]
Edward Bates
(1793-1869)
Lawyer [ American ]
Robert Joffrey
(1930-1988)
Co-founder of Joffrey Ballet [ American ]
Edward Steichen
(1879-1973)
Photographer [ American ]
Ida B. Wells
(1862-1931)
Journalist [ American ]
Caroline Chisholm
(1808-1877)
Immigrant Welfare Activist [ British ]
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