23rd March In History

“We are not makers of history. We are made by history.” -Martin Luther King, Jr. March 23rd, being the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, surely coincides with the quote above by Martin Luther King Junior. It is true that if today we stand and say that we have succeeded or we have failed collectively as a race, it is the result of our history. Today in particular, many events that have occurred in the past have led us to this point. From the formation of the Fascist party that inevitably shaped the Second World War, to the inventions that made life easier, to King Henry VIII of England passing the dissolution of monasteries. A lot of what we face today is surely part of the consequences of the past. With regard to entertainment, this very day the English Football League met for the very first time, the result being the spectacle which is now known as the English Premier League, and in addition, the movie Titanic equaled the record for most Academy Awards wins.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 23rd March



1400

Politics

The Trần Dynasty Of Vietnam Is Overthrown

Following the exhaustion caused by the attacks of the Mongols and the Champa’s, court official Hồ Quý Ly deposed the last Tran emperor and ascended the throne. His reign as the emperor was marked with progression as he introduced mathematics, paper currency, and focused on using heavy machinery in war such as canons, catapults, etc.


1540

Politics

Waltham Abbey Church Is The Last Monastery To Be Suppressed By King Henry VIII

After the Act of Supremacy, 1532, was granted to King Henry VIII by the Parliament, the ruler carried out the dissolution of monasteries and disbanded them from all functions. He seized their wealth and used it to fund his wars that would follow. Considering that at that time the Church of England constituted more than 2.5 million in various religious orders, Henry VIII’s act was looked upon as one of the most revolutionary decisions in history. His loathe towards the church was sparked when the Pope refused to grant him annulment from Catherine of Aragon.


1568

Politics

The Peace Treaty Of Longjumeau Is Signed, Ending The French Wars Of Religion

The French Wars of Religion which occurred between the years 1562–98 was fought between the French Catholics and the Protestants. The peace treaty signed by Charles IX of France and Catherine de' Medici, granted privileges and freedom to the Protestants. The war which lasted a little more than three decades claimed the lives of 2,000,000 to 4,000,000 civilians, who died in battle or succumbed to diseases and famine as the inevitable result of the war.


1801

Politics

Tsar Paul I Of Russia Is Betrayed And Slain By His Own Men At St. Michael’s Castle

Five years after ascending the throne as Emperor of Russia, Paul I was betrayed by his own court men and was slain. After the Emperor realized the corruption in the Russian treasury and attempted to make a code of chivalry, his men conspired to assassinate him. Almost a scene synonymous in description to the Ides of March, Paul was stabbed, choked and trampled after refusing to sign a document of abdication. After his death his son Alexander I succeeded him.


1901

Politics

First President Of The Philippines’ Emilio Aguinaldo Is Captured By The American Forces

A military leader and revolutionary, Emilio spearheaded his country in the war against the Spanish in the Philippine Revolution. He then became Philippines’ first ever President. He fought in the Philippine-American war and was captured in Palanan, Isabela, thus ending his Presidency.


1908

Politics

American Diplomat Durham Stevens Is Attacked By Korean Assassins And Pronounced Dead A Couple Of Day

Stevens, who was an American Diplomat and later worked with the Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, infuriated Korean patriots by blatantly proclaiming in an interview with a San Francisco newspaper that the “Koreans were benefiting from the presence of the Japanese in the country”. On March 22nd he was attacked at his hotel by two Koreans. The next day, Korean immigrants Jang In-hwan and Jeon Myeong-un shot Stevens in the back twice after a scuffle at the Port of San Francisco. He died two days later in hospital.


1919

Politics

Benito Mussolini Founds His Fascist Political Movement

Politician, journalist and publisher for the Socialist Paper, Mussolini eventually made a decision that influenced greatly the Second World War. He broke away from the Socialist Party, which he was once part of, and formed the Fascist Party with his goal being a one-party dictatorship in Italy. His Party advocated terrorism to intimidate the people and oppositions.


1920

Politics

Britain Denounced The U.S. Because Of Their Delay In Joining The League Of Nations

With opposition in the U.S Senate and their failure to get 2/3rd majority to agree upon the Treaty of Versailles, the U.S failed yet again to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. For this deferment, the British decided to denounce the U.S and cut formal ties with them.


1931

Politics

Indian Revolutionaries Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru And Sukhdev Thapar Are Executed For Killing Br

In what was one of the first oppositions to the British Rule in India, freedom fighters and revolutionaries Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru And Sukhdev Thapar were convicted for killing British officer John Saunders. The motive behind the murder was to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.


1935

Politics

Signing Of The Constitution Of The Commonwealth Of The Philippines

The Commonwealth functioned as a transitory body till the Philippines gained complete freedom. Backed by the Unites States, the Philippines agreed to function as a Commonwealth to achieve independence.


1956

Politics

Pakistan Becomes The First Islamic Republic In The World

Eight years after their separation from India to achieve their desire to form an Islamic state, Pakistan formed their own independent legislative body, becoming the first Islamic republic in the world.


1981

Politics

U.S Supreme Court Upheld A Law Making Statutory Rape A Crime For Men But Not Women

Though a petitioner argued that the law which includes that only men can be booked under statutory rape is gender biased and discriminative, the Supreme Court upheld their decision. They stated that women are at a greater risk during sexual intercourse and with this notion, regard males as the only offenders in statutory rape.


1982

Politics

Fernando Romeo Lucas García’s Guatemala Government Is Overthrown

With a term of Presidency marked with human rights violations during the civil war and fraudulent elections, Lucas Garcia’s government was overthrown by Army General Efraín Ríos Montt and his other officers. General Efrain succeeded Garcia as President of Guatemala.


1983

Politics

President Ronald Reagan Proposes The Strategic Defense Initiative

In an effort to protect the United States from nuclear missiles, President Reagan proposed the idea of strategic defense to divert any missile fired towards them, keeping in mind the impending threat from the Soviets. The concept was largely influenced by the 1977 blockbuster Star Wars’s “global shield” that is used by the Dark Force.


1999

Politics

Paraguay’s Vice President Luis María Argaña Is Assassinated

Just when President Raul Cubas was on the verge of being impeached for large scale corruption and other crimes, his Vice –President, Luis Maria, who was considered to succeed him, was assassinated in his car just outside his house. The Assailant Pablo Vera Esteche claimed that he was paid $300,000 by Cubas to carry out the killing.


1757

Wars

The British Capture The Chandannagar Fort

In what was a war between the French and the British East India Company, the British captured the Chandannagar Fort. As a result of the battle, the fort, which was once a commercial hub, was reduced to rubble with most of the city and fortifications destroyed.


1821

Wars

Greek War Of Independence: Battle Of Kalamata

In what was the first resistance of the Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire, the revolutionaries under the command of Theodoros Kolokotronis, Petros Mavromichalis and Papaflessas liberated Kalamata. The city would eventually fall to the invading armies of Ibrahim Pasha but the victory at Kalamata was a glimmer of hope for the revolutionaries.


1862

Wars

First Battle Of Kernstown, Virginia

In the civil war fought between the Confederates and the Union, the first battle of Kernstown marked the start of Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's campaign. The battle was highlighted with the rare tactical failure of Gen. Thompson but was considered a victory for the Confederates as they prevented the Union from reaching the Peninsula and strengthening their campaign there.


1879

Wars

Battle Of Topáter, The First Battle Of The War Of The Pacific Begins

The Battle of Topater marked the beginning of the War of the Pacific which was fought between Peru and Bolivia on one side and Chile on the other. The War of the Pacific took place between these three nations as a result of irredentism or territorial claim and the right to mine in the Atacama Desert.


1885

Wars

Battle Of Phu Lam Tao

The Sino- French war was fought between the French and the Chinese, as the former wanted to claim territory and control over Tokin, North Vietnam. The Battle of Phu Lam Toa was significant as the French were defeated by a mixture of the Chinese forces and the Black Flags.


1905

Wars

The Theriso Revolt

The revolt, which was named after Cretan politician Eleftherios Venizelos’ mother’s native land, was an uprising against the ruler of Greece. Venizelos was dismissed by Prince George as a government official and this spurred him to lead the revolution with the ambition to unite Crete with Greece in order to achieve better governance.


1918

Wars

The Germans Annihilate The Royal West Kent Regiment

The Germans mutilated the 10th battalion of the Queen’s own Royal West Kent Regiment during the third day of the German offshore. The survivors of the British infantry regiment were taken as prisoners of war (POWS) by the Germans.


1942

Wars

The Japanese Occupy The Andaman Islands

With the priority of the Japanese to gain control of Port Blair, they occupied the Andaman Islands, an archipelago on the Bay of Bengal, during the Second World War from the British forces and the Sikh garrisons.


1980

Wars

Archbishop Óscar Romero Of El Salvador Pleads With The Government Military To Stop Repressing His Pe

A voice for peace and an angel in the midst of evil for the Salvadorians, Archbishop Óscar Romero of El Salvador pleaded with the government to stop the civil war and the killing of his blood brothers. He said, "In the name of God, in the name of this suffering people whose laments rise to heavens, each day more tumultuous, I ask you, I beg you, I order you -- stop the repression!" Shortly after, he was assassinated while serving mass. By the time of his death, he had a huge following- all supporting peace.


1991

Wars

Revolutionary United Front & Charles Taylor Spark The Sierra Leone Civil War

National Patriotic Front of Liberia headed by Charles Taylor and the rebel group Revolutionary United Front attempted to overthrow Joseph Momoh and his government. This resulted in the Sierra Leone Civil War that lasted 11-years from that point. Around 50,000 people were killed as a result of the civil war.


2003

Wars

The Battle Of Nasiriyah Begins

The battle which lasted till April 2nd was the first major conflict between the U.S Forces, commanded by the Bush administration, and the Iraqi soldiers. The battle ended with the Iraqi soldiers defeated.


1917

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Consecutive Tornadoes Kill 211 People In Midwest U.S

In what was considered as the deadliest tornado strike of the start of the century, four tornadoes struck in four consecutive days in Midwest U.S and claimed 211 lives.


1994

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Aeroflot Flight 593 Crashes In Siberia Killing 63 Passengers And 12 Crew Members

The flight which was en route to Hong Kong from Moscow crashed into a hillside of the Kuznetsk Alatau mountain range. Though there was no concrete evidence to pinpoint the cause of the accident, it is presumed that the mishap was caused by the pilot’s 16-year-old son. The boy mistakenly turned off the autopilot of the craft’s ailerons that caused a steep descent, one which the pilot could not control in time.


1994

Disasters & Natural Calamities

A United States Air Force (USAF) F-16 Aircraft Collides With A USAF C-130 At Pope Air Force Base

On the same day as the Aeroflot Flight 593 Crash, disaster struck at the Pope Air Force Base as well. The incident came to be known as the “Green Ramp Disaster” and the worst peacetime loss suffered by a single division since the Second World War. In what was a routine practice flight, the two flights crashed against each other mid-air and then collided with 24 US servicemen on the runway, killing them all.


1888

Sports

The Members Of The Football League Meet For The First Time

The world's oldest professional association football league in history met on this very day for the first time to draft a league that would consist of 70 English teams and two teams from Wales, divided into three divisions. It was not until 1992 did the top 22 clubs divide to form what is now known as the English Premier League.


1952

Sports

Chicago Black Hawks Pull Off One Of The Biggest Comeback In History

Though the Rangers were leading 6-2 with fifteen minutes to spare, Mosienko hit the back of the net three times in a record 21-seconds to bring home the victory for Chicago Black Hawks. It ended with an unprecedented score line of 6-7.


1965

Literature & Entertainment

The First Issue Of The Vigilant Is Published From Khartoum, Sudan

The Vigilant, an English newspaper, which inevitably became the voice of the Southern movement and Southern Front, a Sudanese Political Party, began its publication on this very day.


1950

Literature & Entertainment

"Beat The Clock" Premiered On CBS-TV

The Goodson-Todman game show that was enlisted on TV Guide's list of the 60 greatest game shows ever, premiered on March 23rd. Against all odds, considering it was a reality TV show, it ran for 53 years till its close in 2003.


1987

Literature & Entertainment

Soap "Bold And Beautiful" Premieres

Created by William J. Bell and Lee Phillip Bell, the iconic soap opera which has now completed 7000 episodes premiered on this day.


1998

Literature & Entertainment

The Movie "Titanic" Won 11 Oscars At The Academy Awards

Titanic, the movie based on the 1912 largest passenger ship tragedy, starring Leonardo Dicaprio and Kate Winslet, won a record 11 Oscars. The movie equaled Ben Hur with the most number of Academy Awards in a single year.


1806

Trivia

Explorers Lewis And Clark And Their "Corps Of Discovery" Begin Their Strenuous Journey Home

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and the rest of their crew famously known as “Corps of Discovery” travelled from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. With over 3600-miles, and after years of travelling by ship, boats and horseback, they made their way back home. The explorers and their crew were welcomed as heroes as most of their people presumed them to be dead as they were gone for years together.


1836

Trivia

Franklin Beale Invents The Coin Press

An invention that led to the evolution of the industrial age, Franklin Beale on this day invented the coin press which was the first to be powered by steam. This revolutionary machine produced the first batch of coins that was delivered to the US. Mint.


1840

Trivia

The First Photograph Of The Moon Is Taken

An English-American scientist, chemist and photographer, John William Draper is credited to be the first person to successfully take a picture of the moon, making it officially the first picture of the moon. Apart from this, he is also credited to take the first picture of a human.


1848

Trivia

The Ship John Wickliffe Arrives At Port Chalmers Carrying The First Scottish Settlers For Dunedin, N

Named after reformer John Wickliffe, the ship that arrived that arrived on March 23rd, carried the first Scottish settlers to New Zealand. Amongst the settlers was Captain William Cargill, who founded the Otago region in New Zealand.


1857

Trivia

Elisha Otis's First Elevator Is Installed At 488 Broadway New York City

An invention that spurred the possibility of modern buildings and skyscrapers, Otis elevators was established by Elisha Otis in 1853. Four years later, the company installed the first ever elevator. The elevator was located in New York City at the The E.V. Haughwout Company department store, and was assembled to scale the five floors it possessed.


1880

Trivia

John Stevens Patents The Grain Crushing Mill

John Stevens invented this revolutionary machine and patented it to his name. His invention increased the flour production up to 70 % at that time, and the seamless process that followed led to large scale shifts in regions where wheat was grown.


1889

Trivia

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Is Formed

Now followed by 10- 15 million people around the world, with the major concentration being in South Asia, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, which is a sect of Islam was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in India.


1921

Trivia

Arthur G. Hamilton Makes A Record Parachute Jump

Lieutenant Arthur G. Hamilton created history when he jumped out of a cockpit 24,400 feet above sea level and safely landed, though he drifted eight miles while making the descent. The previous record was 22,000 feet.


1922

Trivia

Biplane Designed By Alfred V. Verville Lands In Front Of The Capitol, Washington D.C

To demonstrate his invention, the Verville-Sperry M-1 Messenger, which was intended to replace the motorcycle for passing across messages, Alfred V. Verville gained most attention when he landed his invention on the steps of the capitol and bounced on it.


1965

Trivia

Nasa Launches Gemini 3

The first mission in NASA’s Gemini Program, the Gemini 3 Was United States’ first two-man spacecraft and also made history for being the first orbital maneuvered manned spacecraft. Astronauts Gus Grissom and John Young flew the Gemini 3 and nicknamed it Molly Brown.


1983

Trivia

Dr. Barney B. Clark Dies After Living 112-Days With An Artificial Heart

The recipient of the world’s first permanent artificial heart, Clark died in hospital after suffering multiple organ failure, 112-days after he had the plastic and aluminum device implanted in his chest. His strength and willingness was lauded by the world of medicine, as through him they were able to make major breakthroughs.


1989

Trivia

Earth Almost Gets Hit By A Humongous Asteroid

Humanity lived to see another day as an asteroid, the size of 1000 feet in diameter, merely missed crashing into the earth by 500-miles.


1989

Trivia

Joel Steinberg Was Sentenced To 25 Years For Killing His Adopted Daughter

New York criminal defense attorney came into the limelight when he was charged with manslaughter following the death of his six-year-old daughter Elizabeth. Joel and his live-in partner illegally adopted Lisa as he took the child home instead of finding her a suitable home to reside in. Under the influence of cocaine, Joel hit Lisa in the head. Three days later she succumbed in hospital due to neglect of the concussion she suffered.


2001

Trivia

The Russian Mir Space Station Crumples To The Pacific Ocean Near Figi

In what is still a subject of controversy, the Russian Mir was the largest artificial satellite orbiting the Earth and the first modular station to be assembled in space. On this day, the space station was disposed of and the remains of it were seen crumpling, as it passed the earth’s atmosphere. Strangely and controversially, a dozen UFO looking objects circled the space station before it broke into pieces.


2005

Trivia

Texas City Refinery Explosion Kills 15 Workers And Injures 170

The explosion in the second largest oil refinery in the state and the third in USA, according to investigations was caused due to a hydrocarbon explosion during the isomerization process. The explosion claimed the lives of 15 and injured 170.


People Born This Day

Emmy Noether
(1882-1935)
Mathematician [ German ]
Joan Crawford
(1905-1977)
Actress [ American ]
Roger Bannister
(1929-)
Former British Athlete Who Ran The First Sub-Four-Minute Mile [ British ]
Wernher Von Braun
(1912-1977)
[ German ]
Akira Kurosawa
(1910-1998)
Filmmaker [ Japanese ]
Hassan Fathy
(1900-1989)
Architect [ Egyptian ]
Pierre-Simon Laplace
(1749-1827)
Scientist [ French ]
Schuyler Colfax
(1823-1885)
17th Vice President of the U.S.A [ American ]
Juan Gris
(1887-1927)
Painter [ Spanish ]
Daniel Bovet
(1907-1992)
Pharmacologist [ Italian ]
Hermann Staudinger
(1881-1965)
Chemist [ German ]
Txunamy
(2009-)
Musical.ly & Instagram Star. [ American ]
Mo Farah
(1983-)
Athlete [ British ]
Kyrie Irving
(1992-)
Basketball Player [ Australian ]
Brian Hanby
(1989-)
YouTube Star [ Irish ]
Ayesha Curry
(1989-)
Celebrity Chef & Cookbook Author [ Canadian ]
Peter Schiff
(1963-)
Investor & Investment Broker [ American ]


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