15th July In History

Most people comprehend history as something which relates to events which happened in the remote past. Well, it is true that history concerns only things which happened in the past but many of these events have made a huge impact on our present. So much so that, many amendments were implemented in our administrative system due to these occurrences and only knowledge of historical events can help us know the reasons why such modifications were made. While many dismiss history as bygones which can be forgotten, there are several others who value its significance. A great author once famously remarked, “History doesn't repeat itself, but it does rhyme.” Therefore, in order to know the whole poem, we need to know the first stanza to relate with the couplet which follows. All the dates in history are important but there are certain ones which make a mark in the pages because of the occurrence of certain events which were no lesser than a whirlwind to mankind, like 15th July for instance. Without wasting much time, let’s proceed to the events which happened on that day and understand why the world considers it a significant one.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 15th July



1207

Politics

Canterbury Monks Suspended

King John of England was not willing to appoint Cardinal Langton as the Archbishop of Canterbury, and this created a disagreement between the king and Pope Innocent III. On 15th July, 1207, the monks of Canterbury who were in favor of the Archbishop Stephen Langton were barred by the king.


1482

Politics

Crowning Of Muhammad XII

Spain was ruled by many Arab Muslim dynasties and the Nasrid Dynasty was the last among them, who reigned over the Emirate of Granada. On 15th July, 1482, Muhammad XII was crowned the king and he was the last Nasrid royal to rule the kingdom.


1685

Politics

Execution Of James Scott

James Scott, the Duke of York, rose to power after the death of his brother Charles II, but his rule was not accepted by many Protestants since he was a Catholic. Therefore, the Monmouth Rebellion took place and on this day in 1685, at Tower Hill, England, James II was killed.


1815

Politics

Napoleon Bonaparte Surrenders

The Napoleonic Wars, which were some of the biggest conflicts in the history of mankind, came to an end when the famous French monarch surrendered. On this day in 1815, Napoleon I, surrendered to the European forces, when he was on the ‘HMS Bellerophon’.


1834

Politics

‘Spanish Inquisition’ Dissolved

The association known as the ‘Spanish Inquisition’ was established by Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, to remove the Medieval Inquisition and affirm the Catholic practices in their region. However, on 15th July, 1834, this tribunal was dissolved after being active for 356 years.


1863

Politics

Third Day Of New York City Draft Riots

During the American Civil War, the citizens of the nation were enraged by the racial discrimination and the inadequate wages which they received. Their wrath knew no bounds when the New York City Draft made it mandatory for civilians to join the war. Many people opposed this and withdrew their names from the list, and eventually, this resulted in a four-day long devastating riot. 15th July, 1863, was the ill-fated, third day of the riot, during which several blacks were attacked and killed.


1927

Politics

Massacre At Vienna

Austria was going through a time of socio-political unrest after World War I. In January, a fight broke out between the Nationalists and the Social Democrats in Vienna, in which a man and his son were killed. The person, who was found guilty, was freed from all the charges, which infuriated many and thus, protests began. To control the turbulent situation, the police fired, causing the death of 84 protestors and 5 policemen.


1944

Politics

An Attempt At Killing Hitler

The people of Germany, including those in the Nazi army, wanted to put an end to the atrocities caused by Hitler. His haters assembled to conspire against him and they chose Count Claus von Stauffenberg as the assassin, because he being a colonel had easy access to the Führer. Stauffenberg planned to kill Hitler on 15th July, 1944, with the help of a bomb which he carried to the Berchtesgaden headquarters. However, the plan did not work out as planned because the Nazi leader left for the Rastenburg headquarters the same day.


1964

Politics

Goldwater’s Presidency Nomination

Senator Barry Goldwater won the confidence of his Republican Party colleagues and on 15th July, they nominated him for the president’s designation. However, the popularity of his competitor was stronger and the election was won by the Democrat leader Lyndon B. Johnson.


1971

Politics

Nixon’s Visit To China

U.S President Richard Nixon had announced, during a live program his inclination to visit China, which to an extent helped in strengthening the ties between U.S and China. After the establishment of communism in China, it was President Nixon who had been critical about America building relation with China. Thus, his statement about visiting China on this day in 1971, became the first step taken towards establishing diplomatic ties.


1974

Politics

President Makarios Overthrown

Makarios III was the archbishop as well as the first president of Cyprus, who served in the office for three terms. In 1974, the Greek junta started a protest to overthrow Makarios and appoint Nikos Sampson as the new president of Cyprus.


1975

Politics

Race For Space Supremacy

During the cold war period, decades ago, the United States and Soviet Union were constantly competing with each other. One of the main areas of concern for both the nations was space research. This race was finally won by the United States after they successful landed on the moon. On this day in 1975, the joint endeavor, known as the Apollo-Soyuz mission, was launched. When the commanders of the Apollo spacecraft and Soyuz shook hands, it marked the beginning of a whole new U.S.-Soviet relationship.


1979

Politics

Jimmy Carter Brings Forth The Issue Of Impending Crisis

Former U.S President Jimmy Carter could foresee a national crisis, mainly an economic slump. He wanted to let the nation know about this and chose to do it through live media. On 15th July, 1979, he appeared live on TV, where he discussed about the crisis, along with other vital issues. The political stalwart said that it is the dearth of ‘moral and spiritual confidence’ which triggers such unfavorable situations.


1240

Wars

Battle Of Neva

Among the various power struggles which took place during the Swedish–Novgorodian Wars, was the Battle of Neva. The war was fought to win the Gulf of Finland, located between Sweden and Republic of Novgorod. In this particular battle, which took place in July 1240, the Novgorodian forces emerged victorious, under the command of Alexander Nevsky.


1410

Wars

Battle Of Grunwald

The Battle of Grunwald was fought jointly by the Lithuanian and Polish military troops, against the Teutonic Order, on this day in 1410. In this battle, the troops of the Teutonic Order were defeated by the Polish–Lithuanian allied forces.


1918

Wars

Second Battle Of The Marne Sparks Off

The German troops, under the leadership of General Erich Ludendorff, launched an attack on the Champagne region, located close to the Marne River, in 1918. General Ludendorff thought that this move would guarantee a German victory in World War I. However, the attack did not cause much harm and the French, led by Commander-in-Chief Philippe Petain, overpowered the German army.


1966

Wars

‘Operation Hastings’ Begins

During the Vietnam War, the American army, the supporters of South Vietnam, learnt that the North Vietnamese Army had entered the borders of South Vietnam. Soon after, Major-General Wood B Kyle advised General Lew Walt that they should drive ‘NVA’ behind the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). Thus, ‘Operation Hastings’ was launched on this day in 1966, and it turned out to be one of the goriest conflicts of the Vietnam War.


1888

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Volcanic Eruption In Mount Bandai

One of the greatest natural disasters in the history of mankind was the volcanic eruption at Mount Bandai in 1888. The aftermath included fiery mud rain, which caused severe injuries to people in the Honshu Island. The lava destroyed vast stretches of land and even buried hundreds beneath it, also causing a crater measuring around 8,000 feet.


1980

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Deadly Storm Takes A Toll On Wisconsin

In 1980, a devastating storm swept off many regions in Wisconsin and that was one of the worst natural calamities America had seen till then. The derecho caused huge losses to Wisconsin and the estimated monetary figure summed up to a whopping $240 million (as valued in that year).


1996

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Lockheed C-130H Hercules Crashes

On 15th July, 1996, the aircraft ‘Lockheed C-130H Hercules’ took off from Rimini-Miramare Airport with 41 passengers. The flight was carrying member of the Royal Netherlands Army, headed for Eindhoven Airport, Netherlands but when it landed, it crashed, killing 34 onboard.


2014

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Moscow Train Derails

On this day in 2014, a train derailment occurred, making it one of the most horrific accidents in Moscow’s history. It is believed that power surge was the cause of this accident, which claimed more than 20 lives and left hundreds injured.


1986

Literature & Entertainment

‘Columbia Records’ Forgo Johnny Cash

One of the best singer-songwriters that America has ever known, Johnny Cash, had an eventful life which inspired the biopic ‘Walk The Line’. However, this movie did not include one of the major setbacks of his life which occurred on 15th July, 1986. On this day, ‘Columbia Records’, the label with which Cash was associated with for 26 years, ended their collaboration with him.


1988

Literature & Entertainment

‘Die Hard’ Releases

The action packed Hollywood blockbuster starring Bruce Willis as a cop, hit screens across the United States on this day in 1988. This was the movie which catapulted him to stardom and there was no looking back for this star since then. This film shattered records at the box office and eventually turned into a franchise.


484 BC

Trivia

Temple Of Castor And Pollux Built

If Greek mythology is to be believed, Castor and Pollux were the sons of Jupiter and folklores say that during the Battle of Lake Regillus, the two men were seen in the battlefield. This battle was won by the Romans and later it was decided that a shrine would be built in their honor and thus, the Temple of Castor and Pollux was constructed, in 484 BC.


1149

Trivia

Church Of The Holy Sepulchre Sanctified

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built by Emperor Constantine the Great in the third century. Unfortunately, in 1009, the caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed this shrine. It was rebuilt by the aid provided by Emperor Constantine Monomachos, and on this day in 1149, the monument was sanctified.


1741

Trivia

The Russians Set Foot On Alaska For The First Time

Renowned Russian explorer Aleksei Ilich Chirikov went on a voyage towards the United States and on this day in 1741, he discovered southern Alaska. He and navigator Vitus Bering embarked on the journey to locate the Arctic coast of Siberia, as well as America, but a storm killed Bering and it was Chirikov who found Alaska.


1789

Trivia

Lafayette Becomes The Colonel-General

The National Guard, formed in France, was a military organization but wasn’t a wing of the French Army. After its formation in 1789, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, was appointed the Colonel-General on 15th July. Lafayette played a significant role in the French Revolution as well as the July Revolution of 1830.


1799

Trivia

The Rosetta Stone Was Discovered

Pierre-François Bouchard, a member of the French army, was engaged in the French campaign in Egypt and Syria, when he came across a stone with inscriptions. The writing was in ancient Egyptian and was discovered in the village of Rosetta. The stone gave us an insight to the evolution of Egyptian language and therefore, is of much importance.


1806

Trivia

The Pike Expedition Begins

The Pike Expedition was initiated by President Thomas Jefferson and on this day in 1806, with the approval of the United States, Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike led the voyage. The purpose of this journey was to explore the west and the south of the regions which the US received after the Louisiana Purchase contract.


1823

Trivia

Fire At Basilica Of Saint Paul Outside The Walls

The Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls was built in the 4th century, but in 1823, this sacred place caught fire and was destroyed to a great extent. After the incident, Pope Leo XII asked all the people to help build it again and people from every nook and corner cooperated.


1838

Trivia

The Divinity School Address Delivered

The great literary figure Ralph Waldo Emerson offered the students of ‘Harvard Divinity School’ with a speech in 1838, which later came to be known as the ‘Divinity School Address’. In this speech, he discussed about Jesus Christ and said that he was a great man but the fact that he did not accept him as God, angered the Protestants to a great extent.


1870

Trivia

Georgia Enters The Union

During the reconstruction era of the United States, many Confederate states became a part of the United States. On 15th July, 1870, Georgia became one of the several colonies which formed the U.S.


1870

Trivia

Expansion Of Canada

‘Hudson's Bay Company’ held the ownership of Rupert’s Land for around two centuries, and on this day, in 1870, this region along with North-Western Territory was handed over to Canada. Later, these regions were demarcated to form the Manitoba region and the north west territory.


1910

Trivia

The Alzheimer’s Disease

Dr. Alois Alzheimer was one of the foremost persons to relate symptoms to changes in the brain. Thus, he is regarded as an idol in the world of science. German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin was fortunate enough to work alongside Dr. Alzheimer. In 1910, in his book ‘Psychiatrie’ (8th edition), he named the mental disorder the Alzheimer’s disease, as a tribute to Dr. Alois.


1916

Trivia

The Birth Of Boeing

William Boeing, an aviation innovator Of America, and George Conrad Westervelt, a U.S. navy officer, together founded this firm, which was originally called ‘Pacific Aero Products Company’. However, when Westervelt left the enterprise, William Boeing, on 15th July, 1916, renamed the firm after himself. Thus, ‘Boeing’ came into existence.


1920

Trivia

Silesian Voivodeship Founded

In 1920, on this day, the Parliament of Poland founded the Silesian Voivodeship, which was then an autonomous region and existed to be so even during the interwar period. However, at the beginning of World War II, it was included in the newly formed Poland.


1922

Trivia

Japanese Communist Party Formed

The Japanese Communist Party is one of the largest political outfits, built on the principles of democracy, socialism and peace. The party was first formed on 15th July, 1922, but until World War II was over, and political freedom was established, this party operated secretly.


1953

Trivia

Execution Of A Serial Killer

10 Rillington Place, located in West London, made headlines after the horrific discovery of dead bodies in several parts of the house, including the backyard. The person staying there on rent found the hidden corpses and then police investigation revealed the serial killer, John Christie. Clues led police to arrest him and on this day in 1953, he was executed.


1903

Trivia

Ford Gets Its First Demand

After a few attempts at building his own automobile company, on 15th July, Henry Ford received his first order on this day. Ernst Pfenning was a dentist from Chicago, who paid $850 for a two-cylinder Model-A vehicle, and this automobile was constructed in the Mack Street plant located in Detroit.


1941

Trivia

Garbo’s Message To The Nazis

Joan Pujol Garcia, also known as Garbo, was probably the most intellectual spy that the world has ever known. During World War II, he worked as a secret agent for the Germans, but later he changed sides and joined the Allies, as a double agent. On this day in 1941, he sent a message from Britain to Germany, but surprisingly nobody doubted his loyalty.


1954

Trivia

Boeing 367-80 Flies For The First Time

Boeing 367-80 or Dash 80 as it was popularly known as, served as the initial model for both Boeing 707 and KC-135 Stratotanker. On 15th July, 1954, this plane took off for the first time and the purpose of creating this was to let people know the benefits of travelling in a jet aircraft.


1955

Trivia

Mainau Declaration Signed By Nobel Laureates

In 1955, Nobel laureates and scientists gathered at the annual meeting organized in Lindau, Germany. Together, they signed the Mainau Declaration, which meant that they did not support nuclear weapons.


1959

Trivia

Steel Strike

In 1959, the ‘United Steelworkers of America (USWA)’ could not come in terms with a clause in the newly formulated contract which limited the management’s capabilities to making certain changes. Thus, the ‘USWA’ went on a strike against the steel manufacturing firms and it lasted for 116 days.


1965

Trivia

Study Of Mars By ‘Mariner 4’

The spacecraft ‘Mariner 4’ was launched to study Mars and just one day, after reaching there, on 15th July, 1965, the first image of the planet was sent to earth. The spaceship was equipped with a camera and six other machines to help in the unmanned expedition. These images gave the scientists a very close view of Mars, including the presence of craters.


1983

Trivia

Orly Airport Attack

A bomb sealed in a suitcase exploded at the Orly Airport on 15th July, 1983, leaving the travelers jolted. This terrifying incident killed more than 5 people and injured around 50 at the check-in counter. The terrorist group ‘ASALA’ (Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia), took responsibility for the attack.


2002

Trivia

An American Admits Of Helping Taliban

John Walker Lindh, an American citizen, was charged with offering services to the militant group Taliban, and on this day in 2002, he pleaded guilty. Since he admitted to have committed the crime, the authorities relieved him of other charges, but Lindh was sentenced to imprisonment for 20 years.


2002

Trivia

Death Sentence To Daniel Pearl’s Murderer

Daniel Pearl was a renowned journalist who worked for the English daily ‘The Wall Street Journal’. Unfortunately, he was abducted by terrorists and murdered in Pakistan. On this day in 2002, the convict, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh, was given a death sentence, whereas life imprisonment was imposed on his accomplices.


2003

Trivia

‘Netscape’ Ends

One of the first computer service enterprises ‘Netscape’ was acquired by ‘Time Warner’, but after a few years, in 2003, the firm dissolved. Since then, no program developed by ‘Netscape’ was used by ‘Time Warner’.


2003

Trivia

Birth Of The ‘Mozilla’ Foundation

On one hand, Netscape was disbanded by the ‘AOL Time Warner’, and on the other, the non-profit organization, ‘Mozilla’ was established on the same day in 2003. This is the organization which is involved in working with the open source Mozilla project developed by ‘Netscape’.


2006

Trivia

The Launch Of ‘Twitter’

‘Twitter’, touted as one of the most popular social media platforms of recent times, was founded in March 2006, and on 15th July the same year, this website was publicly launched. Within a few years, this became popular among the masses and today there are more than 300 million active users of this platform across the globe.


People Born This Day

Walter Benjamin
(1892-1940)
[ German ]
Arianna Huffington
(1950-)
[ American ]
Brian Austin Green
(1973-)
[ American ]
Diane Kruger
(1976-)
[ German ]
Adam Savage
(1967-)
Industrial designer [ American ]
Jesse Ventura
(1951-)
[ American ]
Jacques Derrida
(1930-2004)
Philosopher [ French ]
Robert Winston
(1940-)
Surgeon, Scientist, TV Presenter [ British ]
Buju Banton
(1973-)
[ Jamaican ]
Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953-)
[ Haitians ]
Rembrandt
(1606-1669)
Painter [ Dutch ]
Linda Ronstadt
(1946-)
Singer, Songwriter, Musician [ American ]
Leon M. Lederman
(1922-)
Physicist [ American ]
K. Kamaraj
(1903-1975)
Former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, India [ Indian ]
Robert Bruce Merrifield
(1921-2006)
Biochemist [ American ]
William Dieterle
(1893-1972)
Actor, Director [ German ]
Bertram Brockhouse
(1918-2003)
Physicist [ Canadian ]
Forest Whitaker
(1961-)
Actor [ American ]


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