10th April In History

It might so happen that we are working with or looking through something and all of a sudden the origin of it comes to our mind. At that very moment we start looking for the zillion answers which our mind seeks about that specific thing; it could be a machine, a movie, a fort or a devastated land. We start wondering whether this was the same, years ago or the story was different altogether. The only way in which we find out in order to satiate our thirsty inquisitiveness is to flip through the pages of history. While we go through the past we realize the importance of each and every date. Let us take the date 10th April. What significance does this hold for you? Many of you will only consider it a date which comes every year, except for the ones who have birthdays on this day. However, if you think about it from the historical perspective, you will find how eventful and vital 10th April has been in shaping our past. Without much ado, let us find out why and how 10th April holds such an essential place in the pages of history.


HISTORICAL EVENTS ON 10th April



879

Politics

Louis III And Carloman II Together Ascended The Throne

After the death of King Louis the Stammerer, his eldest son Louis III ruled West Francia along with his youngest son Carloman II. The following year, the brothers divided the country and while Louis III ruled Neustria, Carloman II reigned over Burgundy and Aquitaine. The joint rule was short-lived as Louis III was killed in an unfortunate accident.


1500

Politics

Swiss Troops Arrest Ludovico Sforza

Duke of Milan Ludovico Maria Sforza took charge of the throne with the help of fraudulent means after the death of the sixth Duke of Milan Gian Galeazzo Sforza. After losing a power struggle with King Louis XII of France, he had to leave Milan. A year later, when he tried to re-enter Milan in 1500, he was captured and placed in custody of the French, resulting in his imprisonment.


1606

Politics

Establishment Of The Virginia Company Of London

King James I initiated the formation of the ‘Virginia Company of London’ which allowed the establishment of a British colony in North America. The London Company was a joint venture which provided financial security to the investors and the king could benefit from the colonies without any investments.


1816

Politics

The Second Bank Of The United States Is Approved

In 1816, after the Federal government of the United States approved of it, the ‘Second Bank of the United States’ was established following the footsteps of its predecessor. President Madison authorized the establishment of the bank by signing a bill as the need for such a financial institution was felt after the ‘War of 1812’.


1821

Politics

Patriarch Gregory V Of Constantinople Hanged

Patriarch Gregory V served as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for three terms and he was one of the most important figures to help in the restoration work of Patriarchal Cathedral of St George. However, Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II blamed the patriarch for the uprising during the ‘Greek War of Independence’ and ordered him to be hanged. This sentence was carried out on 10th April, 1821 (old style).


1826

Politics

The Greek Exodus (Seize Of Town Of Missolonghi)

During the ‘Greek War of Independence’ the Ottomans tried to capture the town of Missolonghi. Though they had failed earlier on several occasions, this time they proved to be a stronger army and defeated the Greeks. There was blood shed, hue and cry and on 10th April, around 20,000 inhabitants whose lives were spared ended the rebellion by moving out of the town.


1919

Politics

Mexican Revolution Leader Emiliano Zapata Killled

One of the most prominent figures of the ‘Mexican Revolution’ Emiliano Zapata Salazar favoured agrarianism and a movement concerning this form of social structure was named after him as ‘Zapatismo’. He supported the poor and fought for them but many leaders did not agree with him and at the order of Mexican politician Venustiano Carranza, Zapata was killed in 1919.


1972

Politics

The Biological Weapons Convention Signed By Seventy-Four Nations

In the disarmament forum of the United Nations, the formation of a treaty banning the production, development and stocking of biological weapons was initiated. In 1972, this treaty was drafted and signed by countries who agreed to it. At present there are 171 state-parties, but a few of them did not ratify it yet.


1998

Politics

Northern Ireland Peace Deal

The political unrest which resided in different parts of Northern Ireland had to be resolved and to do that many peace talks were carried on at different points of time. These talks finally turned fruitful when on the Good Friday of 1998, the peace deal known as the ‘Good Friday Agreement’ was reached.


2009

Politics

Ratu Josefa Iloilo’s Declaration

On this day in 2009, the President of Fiji declared the annulment of the constitution built in 1997. The court said that dismissing Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase was illegal and hence, the president reacted by removing the judges from office as well as nullifying the constitution.


1741

Wars

Austria Defeated At Mollwitz

During the ‘War of the Austrian Succession’, the army under the command of King Frederick II of Prussia defeated the Imperial Austrian Army led by Field Marshall Neipperg on this date in 1741. This was the ‘First Silesian War and it took place at the Mollwitz village.


1778

Wars

British Warships Raided During The Revolutionary War

Commander John Paul Jones was one of the most skilled commanders of the American naval forces. During the ‘Revolutionary War’, he decided to raid the British warship and get back the American prisoners by capturing one rival officer. On this day they began their journey from Brest, France which resulted in the ‘North Channel Naval Duel’.


1809

Wars

War Of The Fifth Coalition

The ‘Fifth Coalition War’ was one of the many coalition conflicts which took place during the ‘Napoleonic Wars’. In this coalition the Austrians and the British formed an alliance and fought against the French army headed by Napoleon I. Initially, the Austrians were the ones who were at a better position than the French, but finally it was won by Napoleon’s troops.


1864

Wars

Archduke Maximilian Of Habsburg Is Proclaimed Emperor Of Mexico During The French Intervention In Me

President of Mexico Benito Juárez had to stop payment of foreign debts as the U.S. did not agree to the terms of the loans which were to help Mexico. This decision of Juárez annoyed Spain, France and the United Kingdom and they decided to take action to get back their money. But Napoleon III had other plans and he made Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg ascend the throne of Mexico on this day in 1864.


1865

Wars

The Day When Confederate General Robert E. Lee Addressed His Army For One Final Time

Robert E. Lee who headed the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and under his command the Confederates were on the winning side in the ‘American Civil War’. But later, Union troops turned stronger with the tactics applied by their general Ulysses S. Grant. Finally, Lee decided to surrender to the Union army and wished for peace between the two conflicting parties. Thus, on 10th April, 1865, Lee addressed the Confederate troops for the final time.


1868

Wars

Emperor Tewodros II’s Army Defeated By The British Troops

Emperor Tewodros II was one of the most renowned rulers of Ethiopia who helped in uniting the various regions of the kingdom, bringing them under a single rule. However, he sent a letter to Queen Victoria (which was not answered) resulting in Ethiopia capturing many British. This led the British troops to attack Ethiopia and on this day in 1868, the British forces defeated Ethiopian army.


1941

Wars

Establishment Of Croatia As An Independent State

During the World War II, Croatia had a huge population of Serbs. But after Germany’s invasion of Yugoslavia, it was decided that Croatia under the leadership of Ante Pavelić will belong to one nationality, following either Roman Catholicism or Islam. On these terms, Croatia was made into an independent state on 10th April, 1941 and the Serbs who followed orthodox principles had to either convert or leave the state.


1972

Wars

North Vietnam Bombed By American B-52 Bombers

The ‘Vietnam War’ which was a cold war between North Vietnam and South Vietnam involved many super powers of the world. China, Soviet Union and many other communists supported North Vietnam while South Vietnam had the allegiance of the United States. In the long running war, the first bomb which struck North Vietnam was launched by the American Boeing 52 in 1972.


1815

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Mount Tambora Volcano Began Erupting

The magnanimous eruption of the Mount Tambora Volcano, Sumbawa, Indonesia began in 1815 and it was biggest of all time in the past 1000 decades. This horrific eruption destroyed a huge portion of the mountain, killed thousands of people and also affected climate around the globe on a large scale.


1963

Disasters & Natural Calamities

American Soldiers Killed When The Submarine USS Thresher Sank

The atomic submarine ‘USS Tresher’ set sail with 129 people on board including crew members and civilians. After heading miles off the coast of New England, the submarine faced some technical issues which were communicated to the USS Skylark, which was also involved in the same drilling work. Soon after, the ship broke into parts and sank in the Atlantic, killing all the people on board.


1968

Disasters & Natural Calamities

The TEV Wahine Disaster

The roll on/roll off passenger and vehicle ferry TEV Wahine met with a devastating storm which caused it to sink. This was one of the biggest marine disasters in the history of New Zealand which claimed more than 50 lives. On board was the Captain Hector Gordon Robertson, who was in charge of the ship. He tried his level best but could not save the ship from meeting a disastrous end.


1973

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Vickers Vanguard Turboprop Aircraft Crash Kills 104 People

An outing was organized for the female members of the Axbridge Ladies Guild, Cheddar Mums' Night Out group and skittles players from regions such as Congresbury and Wrington along with their acquaintances in 1973. These ladies boarded the Vickers Vanguard’s Invicta Airlines Flight 435 and headed for Basel. But this aircraft met with a disastrous accident in which 108 people lost their lives.


1979

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Tornado In Wichita Falls Claims Many Lives

In 1979, the people of Texas and Oklahoma witnessed the tornado which struck the Red River Valley. The worst among the tornado outbreak which continued for two days was the one that hit Wichita Falls, Texas. This multiple-vortex structured tornado killed around 60 people, where most casualties occurred in Texas.


1991

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Collision Between Italian Ferry MS Moby Prince And Oil Tanker

The Italian ferry named ‘Moby Prince’ owned by the ‘Moby Lines’ (formerly known as the Navarma Lines) collided with an oil tanker ‘Agip Abruzzo’ which was anchored at the Livorno harbor. This collision resulted in a massive fire which took around 140 lives and reportedly, this was the worst merchant navy disaster since World War II.


1991

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Satellites Capture A Storm For The First Time

Before April, 1991, it was thought that South Atlantic Ocean was not affected by tropical cyclones. But on 10th April, the weather satellites recorded something which had the characteristics to be termed as a tropical cyclone. Since then many such cyclones have occurred in the region even though this is a rate event.


2010

Disasters & Natural Calamities

Polish President Lech Kaczyński Dies

Lech Aleksander Kaczyński was a Polish politician who became the president of Poland in 2005. However, he along with his wife and other delegates boarded the Tupolev Tu-154M aircraft from Warsaw in 2010 but the plane never reached the destination. Before reaching the Smolensk Air Base, Russia, the plane met with an unfortunate accident in which around 96 people died including President Lech Kaczyński.


1916

Sports

Establishment Of Professional Golfers' Association Of America (PGA)

Business tycoon Rodman Wanamaker wanted to create an official organization to promote the game of golf and for this he invited people associated with the sport. This meeting led to other and finally it was decided that the Professional Golfers' Association of America (PGA) will be formed. Thus, in April, 1916, this organization was founded.


1971

Sports

China Becomes The Host In The Ping-Pong Diplomacy

The ‘31st World Table Tennis Championship’ was being played in 1971, and during this the U.S. Table Tennis team was in Japan. At this time, China invited this team to visit the country. They accepted the invitation and on this day that year, the U.S team arrived in China, thus beginning the ‘Ping Pong Diplomacy’, which was meant to strengthen relations between these countries.


2005

Sports

Tiger Woods At The Masters

One of the best known golf players the world has ever known, Tiger Woods, ruled the new millennium being entitled as the ‘World Number One’ for 281 weeks. In 2005, he registered his fourth win at the ‘Masters Tournament’ which took place at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia, and earned his fourth green jacket.


1972

Literature & Entertainment

Charlie Chaplin & The Oscars

Charlie Chaplin is probably the best entertainer the world has ever seen or will ever witness. However, his high soaring career was marred by controversies during the 1950’s and the United States banned his entry. He revisited the country after about 2 decades when the ‘Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences’ honored him with the Oscar. The twelve-minute standing ovation which he received at the award ceremony is the longest in the history of Oscars.


1904

Literature & Entertainment

Aleister Crowley Publishes The Final Chapter Of The Book Of The Law

‘The Book of the Law’ introduced a new concept in the spiritual world entitled as ‘Æon of Horus’. The penning of this book was shrouded with mysticism as occultist Aleister Crowley said that it was written by his Holy Guardian Angel. Stories about this also say that the three chapters of the book took one hour each to be written, and the last and final was written on 10th of April, 1904.


1906

Literature & Entertainment

The Gift Of The Magi Hit The Book Stores

One of the most cherished stories of all time by author O. Henry, ‘The Gift of The Magi’ was first published in ‘The New York Sunday World’. But in 1906, this was included in the short story collection ‘The Four Million’, and ever since then this has continued to allure readers all-round the globe.


1925

Literature & Entertainment

New York Witness The Great Gatsby

One of the finest nobles of the literary world which has gained popularity with each passing day is American author F Scott Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby’. This masterpiece in American fiction was published in 1925, and it was in this book that Fitzgerald coined the term ‘jazz age’, also portraying a picture of the American society in which he lived.


1953

Literature & Entertainment

House Of Wax Premieres

A revolution in the cinematic world was the 3D films which proved to be beneficial to the business as well as provided a new experience to the movie-goers. Warner Brothers entered this sphere in 1953 with their movie ‘House of Wax’ which was premiered on this day that year.


1970

Literature & Entertainment

The Beatles Split

Even though there were rumours about the tension going on in the band, the final break-up among ‘The Beatles’ came as a shock to the people. The legendary association of the Beatles created many unforgettable melodies which we still cherish. But in 1970, Paul McCartney put a stop to all rumours when he announced in a self-interview, that he is parting from the band.


428

Trivia

The New Patriarch Of Constantinople

Nestorius was a priest and lived in the monastery of Euprepius before being selected by Emperor Theodosius II as the Patriarch Of Constantinople. In 428, he was consecrated to the position and soon after he brought in a lot of changes which were opposed to many especially Cyril of Alexandria (Patriarch of Alexandria). Finally, he was condemned of heresy and removed from the position.


837

Trivia

Halley's Comet & Earth At Approx. 0.04 Astronomical Units (AU; 6 Million Km [3.7 Million Miles])

Comet Halley is the only comet which we can witness from earth with naked eyes. Astronomer Edmond Halley, after whom this comet is named, was the person who predicted its return, and this was the first time a comet’s return was foretold. This comet has appeared many times near the earth’s surface but it reached the closest in 837.


1407

Trivia

Lama Deshin Shekpa Entitled ‘Great Treasure Prince Of Dharma’

Lama Deshin Shekpa was the fifth in order of the Gyalwa Karmapa school of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1407, he visited the imperial palace at Nanjing, and reportedly many miracles were witnessed during his stay at the capital. It was during this time that he was bestowed with the titled of ‘Great Treasure Prince Of Dharma’ by the king.


1710

Trivia

The Statute Of Anne

The first ever law enacted to safeguard copyright was the Statute of Anne which was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain in 1710. Unlike private entities this was managed by the government and the courts.


1856

Trivia

The Theta Chi Fraternity Founded

In 1856, the ‘Theta chi Fraternity’ was founded in Norwich, Vermont when two Norwich University cadets Frederick Norton Freeman and Arthur Chase collaborated for the cause. This is one of the oldest college fraternities in North America and is also a part of the ‘North-American Interfraternity Conference’.


1858

Trivia

Big Ben Recast

The Big Ben is the name of the clock at the Elizabeth Tower (formerly known as the Clock tower) and this famous bell has many stories right from its inception. This bell we see and hear is not the original one. The one which was built to be put up on the tower was damaged severely during installation and on 10th April, 1858, the metal of the bell was used to mold another bell.


1866

Trivia

Foundation Of The American Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals (ASPCA)

When Henry Bergh was made ambassador to Russian court of Czar Alexander II, and during his stay there, he was horrified to see the cruelty meted out to animals. This inspired him to form the ‘American Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals’ and in 1866, he laid the foundation of ASPCA in New York.


1872

Trivia

The First Arbor Day Celebration

National Arbor Day is observed as a holiday in the United States and this is when people plant trees and care for them. This day was observed for the first time in 1872, in Nebraska and around 1 million trees were planted.


1887

Trivia

The Catholic University Of America

This is the only university which is managed by the Catholic bishops of the United States. In 1887, this day, Pope Leo XIII granted the establishment of such a university and thus the ‘Catholic University Of America’ was founded. This university is located In Washington D.C. and it imparts knowledge on Catholicism along with other educational curriculum.


1912

Trivia

RMS Titanic — The Journey Begins

One of the most luxurious passenger liner RMS Titanic set sail on its maiden voyage from Southampton on 10th April, 1912. This ship had more than 2,000 passengers on board when it collided with an ice berg. No one knew that the first trip of this magnanimous ship would be its last too.


1944

Trivia

The Great Escape — The Birkenau Death Camp

The German Nazi built the Auschwitz concentration camp network wherein thousands of people were being killed during the Third Reich. The areas of Poland which were seized by the Germans were the places where this holocaust took place. In the concentration camp there were two daredevils named Rudolf Vrba and Alfréd Wetzler, who managed to escape from in 1944. They later penned their experiences at the Birkenau Death Camp and brought out vivid images of the camp.


1957

Trivia

The Reopening Of The Suez Canal

The Suez Canal was built to reduce the voyage distance and it connected the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. However, some conflicts between Egypt and Israel led to closing this route for months. But in 1957, this was reopened and again the ships could travel from Europe to South Asia without taking a route through Africa.


1959

Trivia

Japan’s Emperor Akihito Marries Michiko

The present Emperor of Japan, Akihito married Michiko in 1959, when he was the crown prince of Japan. He was made the king in 1989, after the death of his father Emperor Hirohito.


1972

Trivia

Communist Guerrillas Kill Oberdan Sallustro

Director General of FIAT Concord, Argentina, Oberdan Sallustro became a prey of the Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP) guerrilla group. They kidnapped him and in return asked for a huge ransom. Though the company agreed on that, the government did not agree to release the guerrilla prisoners. On 10th April, 1972, the army entered the place where he was held captive, but the ERP killed him before he could be rescued.


1972

Trivia

Construction Workers Discover Ancient Chinese Art Work

During some construction work, the labors accidently unearthed some tombs which led to the discovery of many notable Chinese art work and documents belonging to the Western Han Dynasty. These are now being preserved in the Yinqueshan Han Tombs Bamboo Slips Museum.


People Born This Day

John M. Ford
(1957-2006)
Novelist, Writer, Game Designer [ American ]
Mandy Moore
(1984-)
[ American ]
William Booth
(1829-1912)
Founder of the Salvation Army, Preacher [ British ]
William Hazlitt
(1778-1830)
English Writer & Literary Critic [ British ]
Steven Seagal
(1952-)
Actor & Martial Artist [ American ]
Charlie Hunnam
(1980-)
[ British ]
Ghanshyam Das Birla
(1894-1983)
[ Indian ]
Terence Lewis
(1975-)
Dancer & Choreographer [ Indian ]
Jewel Aich
(1950-)
Magician [ Bangladeshi ]
Arnold Orville Beckman
(1900-2004)
Chemist [ American ]
Joseph Pulitzer
(1847-1911)
Journalist & Publisher [ Hungarian ]
Roberto Carlos
(1973-)
Football Player [ Brazilian ]
Kenneth Noland
(1924-2010)
Abstract Painter [ American ]
Samuel Hahnemann
(1755-1843)
Founder of Homeopathy [ French ]
Marshall W. Nirenberg
(1927-2010)
Biochemist and Geneticist [ American ]
Robert Burns Woodward
(1917-1979)
Organic Chemist [ American ]
Sofia Daccarett Char
(1993-)
Singer, Actress [ American ]
Shay Mitchell
(1987-)
Actress [ Canadian ]
Ava Michelle Cota
(2002-)
Dancer, Vocalist, Actress [ American ]
Jessa Hinton
(1984-)
Model [ American ]
Kenneth San Jose
(2002-)
Hip-hop Dancer [ American ]


People Died This Day

Khalil Gibran
(1883-1931)
Artist [ Lebanese ]
Emiliano Zapata
(1879-1919)
Mexican Political figure [ Mexican ]
Henry Van Dyke
(1852-1933)
Author, Educator, & Clergyman [ American ]
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
(1881-1955)
Philosopher & Jesuit Priest [ French ]
Alexander Turney Stewart
(1803-1876)
Entrepreneur [ American ]
Morarji Desai
(1896-1995)
[ Indian ]
Manuel González Flores
(1833-1893)
31st President of Mexico [ Mexican ]
Birbal Sahni
(1891-1949)
Palaeobotanist [ Indian ]
Auguste Lumière
(1862-1954)
Inventor of cinematograph [ French ]
Peter Mitchell
(1920-1992)
Biochemist [ British ]
Michael Curtiz
(1886-1962)
Film Director [ American ]
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